File Name: emotions and facial expressions .zip
Language: English Spanish French. Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings.
These have only recently been overcome. There have been new developments in the field of automated computerized facial recognition; allowing real-time identification of facial expression in social environments.
This review addresses three approaches to measuring facial expression of emotion and describes their specific contributions to understanding emotion in the healthy population and in persons with mental illness. Despite recent progress, studies on human emotions have been hindered by the lack of consensus on an emotion theory suited to examining the dynamic aspects of emotion and its expression.
Studying expression of emotion in patients with mental health conditions for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes will profit from theoretical and methodological progress. Esto solo recientemente ha sido superado.
Interest in both emotions and their regulation has grown substantially in recent years, particularly in the neurosciences and specifically in psychiatry. In experimental studies measuring facial expressions, researchers have sought to identify certain patterns of expression. A vast quantity of data is available; some of these data have been confirmed and some contradicted, depending on the emotion examined and the method used to measure the emotion.
A major problem stems from interpreting data which have not always been fully confirmed, and are based on Paul Ekman's theory of six basic patterns of expression happiness, anger, disgust, fear, sadness, and surprise. Considerable scientific controversy exists regarding Ekman's other basic patterns of expression. Investigations into the expression of emotion have raised the question of whether basic emotions are shared across cultures.
Among these theories, two approaches to the universality of facial expressions have evolved. One is the leading neurocultural theory, and the other the behavioral ecology theory, complemented by a compromise between these two theories proposed by Frijda. His methods included observing the emotional expressions of young children, comparing emotional expressions in dual interactions, observing the expression of emotions of people born blind, and analyzing the emotional expressions of persons suffering from a mental illness.
From his observations, Darwin found strong similarities in facial expression between people of different cultures as well as between animals and men , from which he drew conclusions about the universality of expression of emotion. Based on Darwin's scientific works, Ekman completed a great number of studies demonstrating the universality of facial expression, and subsequently identified the types of emotions that he considered universal, ie, observable basic emotional expressions in unconnected cultures.
Ekman assumed that similarity between emotional forms of expression indicated their genetic basis. In , he postulated six basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, and supplemented these in the s with 11 additional emotions amusement, contempt, contentment, embarrassment, excitement, guilt, pride in achievement, relief, satisfaction, sensory pleasure, and shame.
Ekman's findings were followed by other scientific contributions on the psychological development of the newborn and people who were born blind. In the newborn, Sroufe 12 found reactive crying and native smiling. In an experimental study by Steiner, 13 newborn babies who were exposed to a sugar solution with vanilla flavoring reacted with a smile, compared with an expression of disgust in response to a strong smell of rotten eggs. Izard 14 found the facial expression of irritation to be present from the 6th month of life, while the facial expression of fear presents later.
Charlesworth 15 found a similarity between children who could see and those who were blind with respect to the expression of emotions such as happiness, fear, sadness, anger and trouble, or surprise. In contrast to the neurocultural theory, Fridlund, 16 in his biological behavior-based mimic theory assumed that facial behavior is not automatically related to basic emotions, but rather originates from social contexts and is used more or less indiscriminately.
Although the behavioural ecology theory has not been strongly supported, and related evidence is still limited, Frijda 9 has suggested a synthesis between these conflicting theories, in that phylogenetic expressions related to types of emotions do exist, and represent basic emotions which, however, are influenced by lifetime experience.
Three methods are used to measure facial expression of emotion. Each has specific advantages and disadvantages. These methods involve an analysis of changes in expression in the face of a person.
This can range from real-life observation of a person interacting in a group to videotaped interactions in which facial expressions are documented under laboratory conditions upon experimental triggering of a specific emotion. The pioneer of this approach to measuring facial expression of emotion was Ekman, who, based on his theory of six basic emotions, developed the Facial Action Coding System FACS.
The advantage of this method is that facial expression of emotion can be studied without biases by the investigator or the technique. The time required to use this method is one of the reasons that so few studies have been conducted on expression, compared with those on recognition of emotion. One contribution of EMFACS research is the identification of different forms of smile: expressions of happiness have been extensively investigated as an expression of emotion.
Firstly, different studies have shown that M. Secondly, various types of happiness and different types of laughing as indirect indicators of activation of facial muscles have been described and investigated. An electromyography EMG method has been developed to recognize activation of facial muscles as accurately and distinctly as possible by using surface electrodes. Due to technical difficulties, for a long period, only two different facial muscles, the M.
The methodological validity remained limited because it was unclear whether the recorded muscle activities actually reflected the muscle over which the electrodes had been fixed or another neighboring muscle. From onwards, the technical performance of systems has reached an acceptable level due to highly selected amplifiable sensitivity.
This technical progress allowed identification and independent recording of the activities of subtle visible face muscles. Using a new EMG system, Wolf and colleagues identified the specific facial muscle patterns used to display disgust, appetite, relaxed joy, and aroused joy.
The validity of another EMG system was demonstrated by Schumann, 19 who identified emotion-related activations of facial muscles. The advantages of an EMG system to detect subtle visible facial muscle activity are undisputed for basic research. EMG systems may be useful to develop a consensus-based, stable, empirically founded theory of emotion. The disadvantages of an EMG system are its technical complexity and the restriction of its use in an experimental context.
Commercially available methods for automatic face recognition have improved substantially in quality. Because of the high degree of optimization, it can be adapted to nearly any platform and operating system, especially mobile devices, which makes it suitable for research in real-life settings.
This opens up an entire spectrum of new smart eyewear applications, including communication aids and even biofeedback aids for patients with disorders like autism or schizophrenia, many of whom have different kinds of difficulty interpreting emotions through facial expression. The missing information could be superimposed in the person's field of vision with data glasses. Most information on facial expression of emotion is obtained from schizophrenic patients, who have been found to exhibit a paucity of facial expression, particularly in the muscles involved in laughter.
This deficit correlates with the amount of negative symptoms. Ekman 2 - 8 found M. Mimic disintegration is defined as the inability to organize specific facial muscle movements as an integrated whole, thus making it difficult for observers to decode the emotional state and establish contact or develop a relationship.
Using an EMG system, two signs of mimic disintegration were identified: undefined mimic reactions and lack of mimic consistency. The participants were asked to create faces showing different expressions of emotions anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sorrow, and surprise by using their own verbal expressions.
In a second stage, the participants were asked to talk for 2 minutes about each of the six emotions, specifically about their sensations or experience, and to describe how these emotions were present in themselves.
A discrepancy between minimal facial expression of sorrow and an intense subjective feeling of sorrow was found in depressed patients. A fundamental problem is a limitation in interpreting experimental data because of a lack of a scientifically consensual emotion theory, which has great repercussions on the analysis of facial expression. The emotion theory forwarded by Hans Lungwitz 40 , 41 offers a persuasive argument for five basic feelings and for both mixed and subsidiary feelings, providing a richly detailed analysis of the dynamic of emotions.
Based on these five sequential emotions, the subjective dynamic reality with unique mixed emotions and feelings is constructed by the individual brain. The cycle is then completed with the emotion of joy after fulfilling the concrete action. This theory can be considered as a step towards modern theories of action, combining motion and motivation. A detailed clarification of how emotions are regulated and how the dynamics of facial expression of emotion can be explained could contribute to improved knowledge about basic research in a social setting.
Even more importantly, it could improve understanding of, and therapeutical intervention on, the interactive and social consequences of emotional expression deficits in persons with mental illness.
Innovative studies in the field of facial expression of emotion may provide detailed answers to unresolved questions in emotion research. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Dialogues Clin Neurosci v. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions.
Keywords: facial expression of emotion , emotion theory , measurement. Introduction Interest in both emotions and their regulation has grown substantially in recent years, particularly in the neurosciences and specifically in psychiatry. Universality of facial expression Investigations into the expression of emotion have raised the question of whether basic emotions are shared across cultures.
Measuring facial expression of emotion Three methods are used to measure facial expression of emotion. Electromyography method An electromyography EMG method has been developed to recognize activation of facial muscles as accurately and distinctly as possible by using surface electrodes. Automatic face recognition Commercially available methods for automatic face recognition have improved substantially in quality.
Facial expression of emotion in metal illnes Most information on facial expression of emotion is obtained from schizophrenic patients, who have been found to exhibit a paucity of facial expression, particularly in the muscles involved in laughter.
Conclusions A detailed clarification of how emotions are regulated and how the dynamics of facial expression of emotion can be explained could contribute to improved knowledge about basic research in a social setting. Sapir E. Language: an introduction to the Study of Speech. Ekman P. What emotion categories or dimensions can observers judge from facial behavior? In: Ekman P, ed. Emotion in the Human Face. Measuring facial movement with the facial action coding system In: Ekman P, ed.
Pictures of Facial Affect. Basic emotions. Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. Emotional and conversational nonverbal signs. Gesture, Speech, and Sign. Facial expressions. Frijda NH. Emotions and emotion words. Everyday conceptions of emotion: An introduction to the psychology, anthropology and linguistics of emotion.
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Shichuan Du, Aleix M. Martinez; The resolution of facial expressions of emotion. Journal of Vision ;11 13 Much is known on how facial expressions of emotion are produced, including which individual muscles are most active in each expression. Yet, little is known on how this information is interpreted by the human visual system. This paper presents a systematic study of the image dimensionality of facial expressions of emotion. In particular, we investigate how recognition degrades when the resolution of the image i.
What mechanisms underlie facial expression recognition? A popular hypothesis holds that efficient facial expression recognition cannot be achieved by visual analysis alone but additionally requires a mechanism of motor simulation — an unconscious, covert imitation of the observed facial postures and movements. Here, we first discuss why this hypothesis does not necessarily follow from extant empirical evidence. Next, we report experimental evidence against the central premise of this view: we demonstrate that individuals can achieve normotypical efficient facial expression recognition despite a congenital absence of relevant facial motor representations and, therefore, unaided by motor simulation. This underscores the need to reconsider the role of motor simulation in facial expression recognition. The ability to express and recognize facial expressions is crucial for social interactions Elfenbein et al. A fundamental issue addressed here concerns the nature of the mechanisms underlying facial expression recognition: what types of information are used in recognizing a facial expression in everyday life?
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At the time, the majority of the scientific community disagreed with this theory. Ekman believed that expressions were socially learned, and therefore culturally variable. For instance, if you were born and raised in America, you would display very different facial expressions of emotion than if you grew up in Asia. He would then ask the groups to judge what emotion they thought was being displayed in each photograph.
Body language refers to the nonverbal signals that we use to communicate. According to experts, these nonverbal signals make up a huge part of daily communication. Understanding body language is important, but it is also essential to pay attention to other cues such as context. In many cases, you should look at signals as a group rather than focusing on a single action. Here's what to look for when you're trying to interpret body language.
The recognition of emotional facial expressions is a central aspect for an effective interpersonal communication. Our results confirmed that happiness is the best recognized emotion during preadolescence.
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