File Name: effect of pest and insects on various food .zip
Jump to navigation Skip to Content. Various insects and mites can damage vegetables in home gardens at all stages of growth. Aphids are 1—3mm, soft-bodied insects that can be green, grey, or black.
Insects are responsible for two major kinds of damage to growing crops. First is direct injury done to the plant by the feeding insect, which eats leaves or burrows in stems, fruit , or roots. There are hundreds of pest species of this type, both in larvae and adults, among orthopterans , homopterans, heteropterans , coleopterans, lepidopterans, and dipterans.
Tomatoes were produced on farms in Mississippi in , with a total production of acres. Greenhouse production of tomatoes accounts for a further 83 farms and 6. Average tomato production area per farm is 0. Of farms reporting tomato production, Tomatoes were produced on Insect pests have a significant effect on crop yields and quality.
Information on degree of damage resulting from insect pressure in small-scale vegetable production is limited. Lack of access to restricted use pesticides and cultivars with limited resistance to insect and disease may result in extensive losses.
Improved crop protection strategies may lead to significant increases in production efficiency Lucas, Due to difficulty in monitoring for pests for threshold-based approaches, applications of insecticides are frequently conducted on a calendar schedule.
However, variability in pest populations leads to inaccuracy and ineffectiveness of applications. Improperly timed pesticide applications are both expensive and may worsen problems by affecting beneficial insect species without effectively controlling the target pest Herms, Concern regarding impacts of pesticides on the environment and human health has led to development of integrated pest management IPM programs.
These programs involve use of observation of pest populations in the field to direct timing of pesticide applications. Central to the concept of IPM is use of an economic threshold of a population level where application of a pesticide is advisable.
IPM programs have been widely successful in reducing pesticide use while increasing profitability of crop production Allen and Rajotte, Economic thresholds require an understanding of crop market value. Because of unpredictability and variability of markets, economic thresholds can be difficult to apply. As a result, action thresholds have been developed as levels of pest density that result in loss of crop quantity or quality Schuster and Smith, In comparison with average pesticide use in agriculture, applications of pesticides by fruit and vegetable producers was seven times greater Fernandez-Cornejo, Vegetable producers are required to produce high yields as well as avoid losses in crop quality caused by pests because of a lack of tolerance for blemishes by consumers Lamichhane et al.
Because of its roots in entomology, the primary criterion used for adoption of IPM has been use of action thresholds and pest population monitoring in making decisions to apply pesticides Kogan, Organic vegetables represent an increasingly important segment of the vegetable production sector.
Consumers concerned with pesticide residues perceive organic products as offering a choice lower in or free from pesticide residues DeLind, Efficacy for synthetic pesticides is often greater than organic controls. When management practices were investigated, type of pesticide used was the most important factor affecting insect populations Hummel et al.
A thorough understanding of crop and pest ecology and use of multiple control strategies is essential for effective control of insect pest populations under organic standards Pujari et al. Buildup of insect pests is particularly problematic in organic production; however, use of synthetic pesticides may result in long-term problems, such as development of resistance in both insect pest and pathogen populations and elimination of natural enemies that may otherwise control pests Hummel et al.
Morphological and physical characteristics of plants are associated with attraction, feeding, and oviposition of insect pests Saberfar and Sheikhi, Thus, plant phenology may influence pest populations because of factors such as maturation date, which vary according to plant cultivar.
In addition, pest population development is favored by high temperatures and plant cultivars that vary in their development time may experience differing levels of pest pressure Yurk and Powell, Under field conditions, temperature and relative humidity have been shown to affect populations of tomato pests such as aphids Aphidoidea and whiteflies Aleyrodidae Waluniba and Alemla Ao, The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of alternative insect pest management strategies on the economic return of small-scale tomato production.
Strategies considered in this study were management based on a calendar spray schedule, conventional pesticide management based on action thresholds, and management based on action thresholds using organic controls.
Three insect management strategies were evaluated on two cultivars of tomato commonly available to growers in south Mississippi. In the first treatment Calendar , conventional insecticides were applied every 14 d after transplantation regardless of observed insect pest populations. This schedule was based on observations of pesticide application practices by producers in Mississippi.
In the second treatment Conventional Threshold , conventional pesticides were applied when sampled insect populations were greater than established action thresholds Table 1. The third treatment Organic Threshold uses action thresholds; however, pesticides used in this treatment were limited to those allowed in organic production USDA, a. Action thresholds and insecticide recommendations applied for observed insect pests of tomato compiled from extension publications for the southeastern United States.
Tomato cultivars for this study included Celebrity and Early Girl Bush. These cultivars were transplanted into raised beds 15 Apr.
These planting dates are in accordance with recommendations provided by the Mississippi State University Extension Service for planting tomato transplants for locations used in this study Nagel et al.
Six plots were established at each study location consisting of each of three treatments on two cultivars on which these management practices were evaluated arranged in a randomized complete block design. Study locations served as replications for analysis for a total of four replications.
Raised beds were used to reduce effect of location and standardize treatment of plots. Each plot consisted of eight plants total. Tomato were planted on inch centers. Plots were arranged in a grid with 6 ft between individual beds.
Before planting in each season, media from raised beds were sampled and submitted for testing at the Mississippi State University Soil Testing Laboratory. Recommendations for fertilization and lime application for tomato obtained from the soil testing laboratory of Mississippi State University Extension were followed.
In Feb. In addition, 4 lb agricultural lime was applied to each plot before planting in Pennington Seed. Fertilization in Aug. In all seasons, plants were side-dressed with 0. Pesticides applied in this study were limited to those commercially available without a Private or Commercial Pesticide Applicator's license, as this is reflective of the purchasing practices for many small-scale producers in Mississippi.
Frequently, insecticide purchases are made from local retailers, limiting small-scale producers to similar insecticides as used in home horticulture. In the calendar spray treatment, carbaryl Sevin; Bayer Environmental Science, Research Triangle Park, NC in a liquid formulation was applied every 2 weeks after planting according to label instructions Table 1. This insecticide was chosen because of its broad availability, common use, and activity against a wide range of insect pests. For the conventional threshold treatment, pesticide applications were conducted as dictated by pest populations.
Pesticides used for this treatment were selected according to recommendations issued by the Mississippi State University Extension Service Layton, Similar recommendations were followed for organic threshold treatment plots. Because of lack of published action thresholds specific to Mississippi, threshold data and scouting methodology published for other states in the southeastern United States were used Majumdar et al.
Pesticides for conventional and organic threshold treatments were applied at label rates Table 2. Sampling of plots for insect pest populations was conducted weekly and consisted of whole plant visual examinations of four randomly selected plants per plot with attention paid to plant parts as necessary to determine whether action thresholds were reached.
Retail price of pesticides as advertised by major retailers and cost per minute of application at label rate with 2-gal 7. All plots for this study were sprayed prophylactically for common fungal diseases using broad-spectrum fungicides every 7 d. Fungicides were used in rotation in the order listed previously so as not to exceed allowable yearly rates and following label instructions.
To evaluate economic benefit of management strategies, cost of inputs was recorded. Cost of all pesticide treatments was calculated by measuring volume of pesticides applied. To accurately measure amount of pesticides applied, average output from a 2-gal pump sprayer Chapin International, Batavia, NY over a period of 1 min was determined. Time spent applying pesticides to plots was recorded and actual volume applied calculated.
Pesticide costs were calculated by taking the volume applied as a proportion of total package volume multiplied by package retail price. Retail price was determined based on advertised prices of home use formulations of pesticides advertised by major retailers Table 2.
Time spent in managing each treatment was measured and recorded. Activities in which time was recorded include sampling insect populations in conventional threshold and organic treatments, and pesticide application. Because sampling for insect pest populations was not required for management of calendar spray treatments, time spent sampling in these plots was not included in management cost.
Value of time worked was calculated from hourly wage data obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Fruit were harvested from plots twice weekly.
Harvest from all plots was conducted from 20 June to 25 July and from 15 June to 26 July in spring seasons. During fall seasons, harvest from all plots was conducted from 26 Oct. Fruit harvested in each plot was weighed and rated as marketable or unmarketable.
Fruit were rated as unmarketable because of mechanical, disease, or insect injury. Fruit with minor cosmetic damage in accordance with standard quality common for sale at farmers markets or farmstands were considered marketable. Weights and number of fruit were recorded for marketable, unmarketable, and total yield.
Values for on-the-vine tomatoes were used, as these prices represent tomatoes harvested as breakers, which most closely represents harvesting conducted in this study USDA, b. Prices for the and seasons are shown in Figs.
Cost of management practices was subtracted from total marketable yield value for each plot to obtain actual value of production. Citation: HortTechnology hortte 30, 1; The empirical model used in measurement of factors affecting marketable yield, unmarketable yield, cost of insect pest management, gross value, and gross margin is as follows Eq. Independent variables were evaluated for the impact on yield, management cost, and value for small-scale tomato production in Mississippi.
In Spring and , there were 17 weeks. The study year served as benchmark for the year variable. The Kiln, MS, site served as the benchmark for location, and spring served as the benchmark season. Benchmark for cultivar was Early Girl Bush and method benchmark was calendar spray. To determine the significant factors affecting marketable yield, unmarketable yield, cost of insect pest management, gross value, and gross margin, the empirical model defined by Eq.
The robust variance procedure was used for estimation of regression coefficients. The robust variance procedure results in precise calculations of the sample-to-sample variations of the parameter estimates Ling, ; Posadas, b ; Rogers, The variation inflation factor was calculated to detect the possible presence of multicollinearity.
Tomatoes were produced on farms in Mississippi in , with a total production of acres. Greenhouse production of tomatoes accounts for a further 83 farms and 6. Average tomato production area per farm is 0. Of farms reporting tomato production, Tomatoes were produced on Insect pests have a significant effect on crop yields and quality. Information on degree of damage resulting from insect pressure in small-scale vegetable production is limited.
A pest is any animal or plant which has a harmful effect on humans, their food or their living conditions. Pests include animals which: carry disease-causing micro-organisms and parasites, for example, mosquitoes which carry Ross River virus and Murray Valley encephalitis. For example, rats and mice may eat grain in silos, rice or biscuits in shops and homes and contaminate this food with their faeces droppings and urine. For example, feral dogs dingoes kill or maim many sheep and goats each year; foxes will kill poultry, lambs and many species of native wildlife; and feral cats also prey on native wildlife. Silverfish, for example, eat holes in clothes. For example, termites can cause considerable damage to timber in buildings.
PDF | On Jun 19, , Ujagir R and others published Insect pests and their management | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. stored products either directly or indirectly in their attempts to secure food. Insects developing grains to shrivel and severe infestation has a significant effect on the.
Sustainable Agriculture towards Food Security pp Cite as. Like abiotic stress, biotic stress plays a crucial role in loss of crop production worldwide. The damage caused by insect pest is one of the primary factors for reduced crop production.
The Impact of Insects. Because they dominate all terrestrial environments that support human life, insects are usually our most important competitors for food, fiber, and other natural resources. They have a direct impact on agricultural food production by chewing the leaves of crop plants, sucking out plant juices, boring within the roots, stems or leaves, and spreading plant pathogens. They feed on natural fibers, destroy wooden building materials, ruin stored grain, and accelerate the process of decay. They also have a profound impact on the health of humans and domestic animals by causing annoyance, inflicting bites and stings, and transmitting disease. The economic impact of insects is measured not only by the market value of products they destroy and the cost of damage they inflict but also by the money and resources expended on prevention and control of pest outbreaks.
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