File Name: construction hazards and control measures .zip
With the growing numbers of iron ore pelletization industries in India, various impacts on environment and health in relation to the workplace will rise.
Therefore, understanding the hazardous process is crucial in the development of effective control measures. The aim of the study was to identify all the possible hazards at different workplaces of an iron ore pelletizing industry, to conduct an occupational health risk assessment, to calculate the risk rating based on the risk matrix, and to compare the risk rating before and after the control measures. The research was a cross-sectional study done from March to December in an iron ore pelletizing industry located in Odisha, India.
A total of hazards were identified. On an average, risk reduction was about 6. The hazards having high-risk rating and above were reduced to a level considered As Low as Reasonably Practicable ALARP when the control measures were applied, thereby reducing the occurrence of injury or disease in the workplace.
India has the fourth largest iron ore reserves in the world after Russia, Brazil, and Australia. As good quality iron ore deposits are depleting very fast, beneficiation technologies have to be adopted to meet iron ore demand. Pelletization plants beneficiate fines and transform the unusable low grade fines into an easily consumable feed for blast furnaces. Risk assessment is the process of evaluation of the risks arising from a hazard, taking into account the adequacy of any existing controls and deciding whether or not the risks is acceptable.
Section 2 cb of the Indian Factories Act, , defines hazardous process as follows:. Cause material impairment to the health of the persons engaged in or connected therewith, or. Result in the pollution of the general environment.
Hazard means a source or a situation with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill health, damage to property, damage to the environment, or a combination of these.
Hazard identification means the identification of undesired events that lead to the materialization of the hazard and the mechanism by which those undesired events could occur.
Risk is, at minimum, a two-dimensional concept involving 1 the possibility of an adverse outcome, and 2 uncertainty over the occurrence, timing, or magnitude of that adverse outcome.
Risk assessment is a systematic process for describing and quantifying the risks associated with hazardous substances, processes, actions, or events. Risk assessment method can be defined as any self-contained systematic procedure conducted as part of a risk assessment — that is, any procedure that can be used to help generate a probability distribution for health or environmental consequences.
Hazard Identification Risk Assessment HIRA is a process of defining and describing hazards by characterizing their probability, frequency, and severity and evaluating adverse consequences, including potential losses and injuries.
A risk assessment that provides the factual basis for activities proposed in the strategy to reduce losses from identified hazards. The first step — risk identification — is achieved by identifying all hazards and their subsequent consequences. Hazard control means the process of implementing measures to reduce the risk associated with a hazard.
The occupational health risk assessment shall address the following:. Semi-quantitative evaluation of the possible health and safety effects of failure of controls. Engineering and administrative controls applicable to the hazards and their interrelationships, such as appropriate application of detection methodologies to provide early warning of release.
The study was cross-sectional in design and involved semi-quantitative methods of data collection. The study was carried out in a 4-m tonne iron ore pelletizing industry located in Odisha, India from March to December The pellet plant used travelling grate technology to convert low grade fines into value-added pellets.
The slurry was received at the pellet plant from the beneficiation plant through a km pipe line. It was stored in the holding tanks before being fed through pressure filters and mixed with the additives. The purpose of the additives - limestone, bentonite, coke, and anthracite — was to improve the physical and metallurgical properties of the pellets during processing and in final use. A roller screening mechanism was used to remove any undersized material before the green balls enter the final stage of production, the induration furnace.
The induration process used travelling grate technology and a series of updrafts and downdrafts to dry and gradually heat the green balls to remove moisture before entering the combustion zone where they were first preheated to minimize thermal shock, then fired, and ultimately cooled in various sections of the furnace.
After screening out oversized and undersized pellets, the final product — which had the required properties for charging a blast furnace and ready to withstand handling and transportation — were transferred by conveyor to a stockpile.
The different steps of methodology are mentioned in the Figure 1. Flow chart of methodology of hazard identification, risk assessment, and control measures. All the work activities pertaining to various departments were minutely examined to identify all the possible hazards inherent to the nature of work or work environment [ Table 1 ].
The following methods were used to identify the hazards in the workplace:. Employee participation by interacting with them regarding their work place, working hours, and the possible hazards they noticed [ Annexure 1 ]. Risk assessment was done using semi quantitative method [ 8 ] based on two key factors [ Table 2 ]:. Documenting the process helps to ensure that the identified risk control measures are implemented in the way they were intended. It will also assist in managing other hazards and risks that may be in some way similar to ones already identified.
Adequate record keeping of the risk management process should show that the process has been conducted properly. This information should include:. It involves reassessment of the risk to see whether there is a reduction of risk rating from critical and high risk to a level considered As Low as Reasonably Practicable ALARP. In this plant, hazards were identified and their analysis was performed. They have been classified into five major categories [ Figure 2 ]. The major hazards, risk assessment, and the reduction of risk after taking appropriate control measures are tabulated below [ Table 5 and Figure 3 ].
Hazard identification, occupational health risk assessment before and after control measures. Reduction of extreme and high risk rating to acceptable risk rating after control measures. Statistical analysis involves the calculation of the mean of a set of values in a sample used for observational study. Statistical analysis was done using GraphPad's website.
In this cross-sectional study, it was found out that by applying control measures, hazards having high risk rating and above was reduced to a level considered ALARP.
The findings suggest that Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment, and Control measures HIRAC study on a routine basis can serve as a tool to reduce occurrence of injury or disease in any manufacturing industries. Other departments such as manufacturing, engineering services, commercial, and human resources are strongly linked with the HSE department [ Figure 4 ]. HSE department has a lot of common functions and they play a great role in identifying hazards, risk assessment studies, and their control measures through monthly Safety Committee meeting.
In tough economic times, it is important to remember that poor workplace safety and health costs money. What's more, case studies show that good Occupational Safety and Health management in a business is linked to improved performance and profitability.
The various steps of occupational health assessment of hazardous process in an iron ore pelletizing industry are as follows:. The concentrate slurry is received at pellet plant and stored in slurry tanks [ Figure 5 ]. The concentrate slurry is fed to the filtration process where it is de-watered by pressure filters. The filtrate water so generated is sent to process reservoirs via thickener for storage and internal plant consumption.
Pellet plant is facilitated with additives grinding unit as the process of pelletization requires binder and additives. Bentonite is used as a binder for proper balling of the filter cake particles in to spherical shaped balls with certain compression strength. The powdered bentonite is stored for further mixing process. Limestone is used as a fluxing agent and to get strength to the pellet by heat hardening.
Coke dust is used as a compensatory fuel and to improve physical strength of the pellets by uniform firing of each pellet up to the core. Both limestone and coke are ground in a definite lime to coke ratio in a ball mill by dry grinding process. The so-mixed concentrate is called mixed material, which is fed to a rotating inclined disc pelletizer.
Fine ore particles are agglomerated in to spherical-shaped balls due to the rotating action of the disc. The so-formed balls are called green balls which are further screened and fed to an induration machine.
In induration building, the green balls are fed to the induration machine which forms endless chain of pallets, are slowly brought through different zones of the induration furnace by the horizontal movement of the pallets.
Heat energy is supplied by oil fired burners. Critical parts of the induration furnace are cooled by water circulation. The fired and cooled pellets with good physical strength is conveyed and stored in pellet stock pile.
It contains information on the properties and potential hazards of the material, how to use it safely, and what to do if there is an emergency.
The MSDS is an essential starting point for the development of a complete health and safety program for the material. MSDS deals with the following:[ 12 ]. The following MSDS were collected to study the hazardous process and its control measures in the iron ore pelletizing industries:.
However, semi-quantitative risk assessments are currently widely used to overcome some of the shortcomings associated with qualitative approaches. Semi-quantitative risk assessment takes the qualitative approach a step further by attributing values or multipliers to the likelihood and consequence groupings.
It may also involve multiplication of frequency levels. All risks cannot be eliminated. Documented control plans with responsibilities and completion dates need to be developed for moderate risks. Risk that is acceptable to regulatory agency and to the public is called acceptable risk. There are no formally recognized regulatory criteria for risk to personnel in the mining industry. Individual organizations have developed criteria for employee risk and the concepts originally arising from chemical process industries and oil and gas industries.
Because of the uncertainties linked with probabilistic risk analysis used for quantification of the risk levels the general guiding principle is that the risk be reduced to a level considered ALARP. The aim of implementation of prevention measures is to reduce the likelihood of work accident or occupational disease occurrence. Engineering control of risks [ Figure 6 ].
Remove — during the workspace designing phase, any equipment not meeting the occupational health standards should not be used. Reduce — levels of hazardous substances can be reduced by proper ventilation through exhaust fans. Replace — high-risk equipment or substances should be replaced by low risk ones. Administrative control [ Figure 6 ]. Training of employees — Workers must know the risks they are exposed to, the harm they might cause, and precautions that could prevent these harmful effects.
Enclose or isolate the risk through the use of guards, protection of machinery parts etc. Workers must be trained regarding the selection and use of PPE. When prevention and protective measures fail, a work accident or an occupational disease could happen.
Excavation Hazards are the dangers associated with soil excavation at the construction sites. While construction site excavation, both the workers inside trenches and on the surface are at high risk. So protective measures must be considered against the hazards in the excavation. In this article, we will explore different types of excavation hazards while site excavation and the protective measures that should be undertaken to reduce accidents. Excavation is the removal of soil or rock from a construction site that creates an open space for installing pipes, equipment, etc using various construction tools, machinery, or explosives. So, excavation creates a hole or cavity that is hazardous.
Risk Reduction. When used properly, scaffolds can save significant time and money. Though they are convenient and necessary, there are four major hazards associated with worker injuries that everyone needs to be aware for proper scaffold safety. Falls are attributed to the lack of guardrails, improper installation of guardrails and failure to use personal fall arrest systems when required. These contractors are increasing safety margins by exceeding the minimum requirements of the OSHA standards. Lack of proper access to the scaffold work platform is an additional reason for falls from scaffolds. Access in the form of a secured ladder, stair tower, ramp, etc.
Enter your information and our Subscriptions Manager will contact you. Thank you for subscribing to our magazine. We are just just processing your request The Journal for Employee Protection. Enter your information and a sales colleague will be in contact with you soon to discuss your paid magazine subscription. Gibb then explained the poor record of construction worker deaths, particularly during Olympic stadium building, which resulted in 29 fatalities in construction for the five games from Barcelona in to Bejing in But with fatal accidents in construction industry being double the average of other sectors and with separate incidents and injury commonly accounting for around 2.
Construction Hazards / Risks. Authority Sources / References/. Possible causes / scenario. Some practical control measures. 1. Traffic hazards. > Qld WH&S Act.
Lifting operations are inherent to many occupations in the construction industry. They can be performed manually or using lifting equipment. Both manual lifting and mechanical lifting operations can put construction workers at great risk of injury or health symptoms causing sick leave or disability. The costs of accidents and ill health related to lifting operations, are immense.
A construction site is any piece of land where a building is being built or repaired. Those who work on construction sites are often required to use large tools and pieces of machinery, work at height, and in environments where hazardous materials are present. Because of the nature of such work, working on construction sites can be dangerous.
With the growing numbers of iron ore pelletization industries in India, various impacts on environment and health in relation to the workplace will rise. Therefore, understanding the hazardous process is crucial in the development of effective control measures. The aim of the study was to identify all the possible hazards at different workplaces of an iron ore pelletizing industry, to conduct an occupational health risk assessment, to calculate the risk rating based on the risk matrix, and to compare the risk rating before and after the control measures. The research was a cross-sectional study done from March to December in an iron ore pelletizing industry located in Odisha, India. A total of hazards were identified.
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Сотрудникам лаборатории платили хорошие деньги, чтобы они охраняли компьютерные системы АНБ, и Чатрукьян давно понял, что от него требуются две вещи: высочайший профессионализм и подозрительность, граничащая с паранойей. Черт возьми! - снова мысленно выругался. - Никакая это не паранойя.
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