File Name: global status report on alcohol and health 2014 .zip
Alcohol is a psychoactive substance with dependence-producing properties that has been widely used in many cultures for centuries. An estimated 2. Europe has the highest per capita consumption in the world. Current trends and projections point to an expected increase in global alcohol per capita consumption in the next 10 years, particularly in the South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions and the Region of the Americas.
With growing awareness of the impact of alcohol consumption on global health Rehm et al. Monitoring and surveillance are crucial in setting objectives for national alcohol plans and in evaluating success for more details see Rehm and Scafato In , the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol WHO , which targeted the monitoring and surveillance of harmful alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable harm as one of 10 areas for action.
The Global Strategy also identified production and dissemination of knowledge as one of the key components for global action WHO This mandate explicitly mentioned the harmful use of alcohol as one of the four common risk factors for NCDs along with tobacco use, unhealthy diet, and lack of physical activity United Nations This work yielded a set of nine voluntary targets, including at least a 10 percent relative reduction in the harmful use of alcohol and a set of 25 indicators, including the following possible indicators for monitoring the harmful use of alcohol as appropriate, within the national context: 1 total recorded and unrecorded alcohol per capita consumption among those ages 15 and older within a calendar year in liters of pure alcohol; 2 age-standardized prevalence of heavy episodic drinking among adolescents and adults; and 3 alcohol-related morbidity and mortality among adolescents and adults WHO Inclusion of the alcohol target and indicators in the global monitoring framework for NCDs and their risk factors will increase the demand for high-quality global data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm and attention to the WHO monitoring activities in this area.
With the establishment of the Global Alcohol Database, the WHO Secretariat started to implement regular global questionnaire surveys on alcohol and health among the governmental officials of WHO Member States nominated to provide information to WHO in the areas of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm, and policy responses.
The data collection tools were developed by WHO staff in collaboration with external experts. In , the WHO produced two global status reports based on the data collected from Member States and other sources during one on alcohol consumption and related harm WHO a and the second focused on alcohol policy WHO b. The latest Global Status Report On Alcohol and Health contained newly developed country profiles see figure based on 30 key indicators related to alcohol consumption, health consequences, and policy responses WHO The reports also provided valuable information on levels and patterns of alcohol consumption at global and regional levels, and contained estimates of alcohol-attributable disease burden.
In , the WHO Expert Committee on Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption recommended the establishment of a global information system on alcohol, based on the current WHO Global Alcohol Database, to continue efforts to collect, compile, and analyze alcohol monitoring and surveillance information based on comparable data and agreed definitions WHO The GISAH functions as one single data repository, with common data collection and data quality—control procedures to prevent discrepancies between the global and regional information systems on alcohol and health.
Within GISAH, data are organized under a broad set of seven categories of indicators: levels of alcohol consumption; patterns of consumption; harms and consequences; economic aspects; alcohol control policies; prevention, research, and treatment resources; and youth and alcohol.
GISAH currently encompasses more than alcohol-related indicators, with data for more than countries and territories and includes indicators that are comparable across countries.
The information on prevention and treatment resources is presented in another information system i. Since its development, the GISAH and its regional components have become the central global information tool for dynamic presentation of worldwide data on levels and patterns of alcohol consumption, alcohol-attributable health and social consequences, and policy responses at all levels.
Among the remaining key challenges for improving international comparisons of data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable health consequences are the following: 1 national monitoring systems on alcohol and health in many countries are weak, fragmented or lacking; 2 difficulties exist in estimating consumption of informally and illicitly produced alcohol; 3 poor comparability of indicators used in different jurisdictions; 4 limited geographical representation of studies on the association of alcohol consumption with health outcomes; and 5 a paucity of international multi-country research projects on alcohol epidemiology using common research protocols.
The Canadian CAMH conducts passive surveillance of the relevant published as well as grey literature. The WHO Secretariat convenes regular meetings with key data providers on alcohol consumption to discuss and triangulate available data for achieving better estimates when national data are either unavailable or incomplete. For countries belonging to the European Union EU , the survey is implemented in collaboration with and support from the European Commission. In , the survey instrument contained 69 questions grouped into three sections: 1 alcohol policy; 2 alcohol consumption; and 3 alcohol-related health indicators.
The questionnaire was developed in English and translated into French, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish.
In , Member States participated in the survey, which represented a 90 percent response rate and covered 98 percent of the world population. In , the survey tool was modified to strengthen the alcohol policy section in line with the main suggested areas for national action specified in the WHO Global Strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. In the survey was partially implemented using the Web-based data-collection tool. One of the most important indicators of alcohol consumption in the Global Survey on Alcohol and Health is per capita consumption among those aged 15 and older in liters of pure alcohol.
Notwithstanding some limitations associated with its aggregate-level nature Bloomfield et al. Despite the potential measurement bias in unrecorded consumption, per capita consumption is considered the most reliable and valid indicator for alcohol consumption in a population Gmel and Rehm and is particularly appropriate for monitoring purposes.
Population-based survey data are extremely important for further estimates of alcohol consumption in different age and gender groups but currently cannot be considered as a valid and reliable basis for estimates of alcohol per capita consumption at country, regional, and global levels. Surveys are thought to underestimate per capita consumption by more than 50 percent Midanik , ; Rehm et al.
The alcohol per capita consumption indicator is based on the estimates of per capita consumption of recorded and unrecorded alcohol, the latter referring to alcohol that is not taxed and is outside the usual system of governmental control, because it is produced, distributed, and sold outside formal channels and, therefore, not registered by routine data collection Rehm et al. It is critical to include unrecorded consumption in the estimates of overall levels of alcohol exposure in populations, because more than one-fourth of global consumption stems from unrecorded alcohol WHO However, contrary to some conjectures, unrecorded consumption does not seem to be linked to more health problems than recorded consumption, if volume and patterns of drinking are controlled for Rehm et al.
Recorded consumption can be measured via sales and taxation or via production, export, and import. Many national governments regularly monitor alcohol per capita consumption, and reliable data is available from a significant number of countries, though predominantly high-income. These national statistics, if based on validated methodology, are given highest preference in reporting in GISAH.
Unrecorded consumption obviously is harder to estimate and monitor at the country level. Only a few countries have regular monitoring of unrecorded consumption. For all others, unrecorded alcohol consumption is estimated based on one-time studies and expert opinion. For the Global Survey on Alcohol and Health an additional questionnaire component on unrecorded alcohol consumption has been developed and implemented based on the principles of the Delphi survey methodology for a description, see Linstone and Turoff ; Rehm and Gadenne The questionnaire in this component covers estimates of unrecorded alcohol consumption in its major categories, such as home production of spirits, wine, and beer , alcohol brought over the border smuggling, duty free, and cross-border shopping , illegal production including counterfeit alcoholic beverages , and surrogate alcohol liquids usually containing ethanol and industrial spirits not intended for consumption as beverages.
The questionnaire also addresses perceived importance of unrecorded alcohol consumption from a public health perspective as well as the measures implemented at the country level to reduce the public health impact of illicit and informally produced alcohol in line with a set of policy options and interventions listed in the Global Strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol WHO Tourist consumption also is being considered in estimating alcohol per capita consumption in populations, where tourist consumption is significant because the number of tourists per year is at least the number of inhabitants and is not balanced by drinking by national inhabitants abroad during vacations.
This mainly is the case for smaller countries. Alcohol per capita consumption is one example of the approximately indicators monitored via the GISAH at the country, regional, and global levels. Before releasing the national, regional, and global data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm, and policy responses, the WHO Secretariat undertakes an intensive process of data validation by compiling country profiles with all the available data for key indicators and forwarding the country profiles to each country for validation.
At this stage, any discrepancies are resolved by considering new data for the periods covered in the survey, further triangulation of available information, and building consensus around disputed qualitative indicators.
Both the depth of the GISAH and the rigor of data collection and validation make it an indispensable tool for policy development and evaluation, as well as for global research e. To further improve comparability of data generated in countries, consistent data collection mechanisms, agreed indicators and definitions, and enhanced dissemination of data is needed. One of the challenges for the WHO global monitoring system on alcohol and health continues to be a time lag between the alcohol exposure data collected from countries and their dissemination through GISAH and WHO global and regional status reports on alcohol and health.
Efforts to reduce this time lag will involve data collection through Web-based data collection tools, optimizing data validation and dissemination procedures, as well as strengthening partnerships and resource mobilization for effective functioning of the global monitoring system.
The ultimate objective for the WHO global monitoring system on alcohol and health is strengthening the link between monitoring activities and policy development and evaluation. This system, which includes the global surveys, GISAH, and WHO global status reports on alcohol and health, is the central mechanism for monitoring implementation of the WHO global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol and report on its implementation to WHO Member States WHO , other constituencies, and the public health community at large.
Note: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and, except as specifically noted, do not represent the official policies or positions of the WHO. Financial Disclosure. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Alcohol Res v. Alcohol Res. Vladimir Poznyak , M. Vladimir Poznyak, MD. Alexandra Fleischmann , Ph. Alexandra Fleischmann, Ph. Dag Rekve , M. Dag Rekve, M. Margaret Rylett , M. Margaret Rylett, M. Gerhard Gmel , Ph.
Gerhard Gmel, Ph. Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Copyright notice. Unless otherwise noted in the text, all material appearing in this journal is in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission.
Citation of the source is appreciated. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Open in a separate window. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption One of the most important indicators of alcohol consumption in the Global Survey on Alcohol and Health is per capita consumption among those aged 15 and older in liters of pure alcohol.
Data Validation Before releasing the national, regional, and global data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm, and policy responses, the WHO Secretariat undertakes an intensive process of data validation by compiling country profiles with all the available data for key indicators and forwarding the country profiles to each country for validation.
Further Developments Both the depth of the GISAH and the rigor of data collection and validation make it an indispensable tool for policy development and evaluation, as well as for global research e. Footnotes Note: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and, except as specifically noted, do not represent the official policies or positions of the WHO.
Financial Disclosure The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests. International comparisons of alcohol consumption.
Measuring alcohol consumption. Contemporary Drug Problems. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, — A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease study The Delphi: Method: Techniques and Applications. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley; Validity of self-reported alcohol use: A literature review and assessment. British Journal of Addiction.
The validity of self-reported alcohol consumption and alcohol problems: A literature review. Problems and programmes related to alcohol and drug dependence in 33 countries. Geneva, Switzwerland: World Health Organization; Alcohol Problems, Policies and Programmes in Europe. Oxford: Pergamon Press; Unrecorded consumption, quality of alcohol and health consequences. Drug and Alcohol Review. Comparative quantification of alcohol exposure as risk factor for global burden of disease.
International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research. The global distribution of average volume of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking.
With growing awareness of the impact of alcohol consumption on global health Rehm et al. Monitoring and surveillance are crucial in setting objectives for national alcohol plans and in evaluating success for more details see Rehm and Scafato In , the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol WHO , which targeted the monitoring and surveillance of harmful alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable harm as one of 10 areas for action. The Global Strategy also identified production and dissemination of knowledge as one of the key components for global action WHO This mandate explicitly mentioned the harmful use of alcohol as one of the four common risk factors for NCDs along with tobacco use, unhealthy diet, and lack of physical activity United Nations This work yielded a set of nine voluntary targets, including at least a 10 percent relative reduction in the harmful use of alcohol and a set of 25 indicators, including the following possible indicators for monitoring the harmful use of alcohol as appropriate, within the national context: 1 total recorded and unrecorded alcohol per capita consumption among those ages 15 and older within a calendar year in liters of pure alcohol; 2 age-standardized prevalence of heavy episodic drinking among adolescents and adults; and 3 alcohol-related morbidity and mortality among adolescents and adults WHO
The Global status report on alcohol and health presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States. It represents a continuing effort by the World Health Organization WHO to support Member States in collecting information in order to assist them in their efforts to reduce the harmful use of alcohol, and its health and social consequences. The report was launched in Geneva on Monday 12 May during the second meeting of the global network of WHO national counterparts for implementation of the global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. Aller au contenu. Langue : Anglais.
Global status report on alcohol and health – ed. reddingvwclub.orglism - epidemiology. 2. ISBN 92 4 3 (PDF). © World Health Organization
The report provides an overview of alcohol consumption and harms in relation to the UN Sustainable Development Goals Chapter 1 , presents global strategies, action plans and monitoring frameworks Chapter 2 , gives detailed information on: the consumption of alcohol in populations Chapter 3 ; the health consequences of alcohol consumption Chapter 4 ; and policy responses at national level Chapter 5. In its final chapter 6, the imperative for reducing harmful use of alcohol in a public health perspective is presented. In addition, the report contains country profiles for WHO Member States and appendices with statistical annexes, a description of the data sources and methods used to produce the estimates and references. Skip to main content. Date of publication:.
This is a list of countries by alcohol consumption measured in equivalent litres of pure alcohol ethanol consumed per capita per year. The table below for countries uses data from the WHO report published in The methodology used by the WHO calculated use by persons 15 years of age or older. All data in columns refer to year
July 24, in Legislation and National Strategies , Substance Use Tags: alcohol and health , alcohol consumption , alcohol patterns , country profiles , statistics , trends , World Health Organization. The Global status report on alcohol and health from the World Health Organization provides a global overview of alcohol consumption. It looks at patterns of alcohol use, including binge drinking, and the relationship between alcohol and over health conditions. It also looks at alcohol policy and interventions and provides country-by-country profiles of patterns and trends. Just over 70 countries reported nationwide awareness-raising activities related to alcohol and pregnancy. The report also discusses the role of health services in reducing alcohol-related harm and supports:.
Complete report in PDF.
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