File Name: nuclear pollution causes effects and control measures .zip
When we go in detail about each kind of pollution , the facts may seem very surprising and it is also wondering to know about nuclear pollution. Many people ask does nuclear energy cause pollution. The answer is a big, bold YES. Here, we discuss a lot about what is nuclear pollution, its causes , effects and also prevention. Dig deep into these topics and know more and more about nuclear pollution.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies , usually as a result of human activities. Water bodies include for example lakes , rivers , oceans , aquifers and groundwater.
Water pollution results when contaminants are introduced into the natural environment. For example, releasing inadequately treated wastewater into natural water bodies can lead to degradation of aquatic ecosystems. In turn, this can lead to public health problems for people living downstream. They may use the same polluted river water for drinking or bathing or irrigation. Water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of death and disease, e.
Water pollution can be classified as surface water or groundwater pollution. Marine pollution and nutrient pollution are subsets of water pollution. Sources of water pollution are either point sources or non-point sources. Point sources have one identifiable cause of the pollution, such as a storm drain or a wastewater treatment plant. Non-point sources are more diffuse, such as agricultural runoff. All plants and organisms living in or being exposed to polluted water bodies can be impacted.
The effects can damage individual species and impact the natural biological communities they are part of. The causes of water pollution include a wide range of chemicals and pathogens as well as physical parameters. Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances.
Elevated temperatures can also lead to polluted water. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. Elevated water temperatures decrease oxygen levels, which can kill fish and alter food chain composition, reduce species biodiversity , and foster invasion by new thermophilic species. Water pollution is measured by analysing water samples. Physical, chemical and biological tests can be conducted. Control of water pollution requires appropriate infrastructure and management plans.
The infrastructure may include wastewater treatment plants. Sewage treatment plants and industrial wastewater treatment plants are usually required to protect water bodies from untreated wastewater. Agricultural wastewater treatment for farms, and erosion control at construction sites can also help prevent water pollution. Nature-based solutions are another approach to prevent water pollution.
In the United States, best management practices for water pollution include approaches to reduce the quantity of water and improve water quality. Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants.
Due to these contaminants it either does not support a human use, such as drinking water , or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its biotic communities, such as fish. Natural phenomena such as volcanoes , algae blooms , storms , and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water. Water pollution is a major global problem.
It requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels international down to individual aquifers and wells. It has been suggested that water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of death and diseases. The organization Global Oceanic Environmental Survey GOES consider water pollution as one of the main environmental problems that can present a danger for the existence of life on earth in the next decades.
The organization proposes a number of measures for fixing the situation, but they should be taken in the next 10 years for being effective. India and China are two countries with high levels of water pollution. An estimated people in India die of water pollution related illness including waterborne diseases every day. In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries , developed countries also continue to struggle with pollution problems.
For example, in a report on water quality in the United States in , 44 percent of assessed stream miles, 64 percent of assessed lake acres, and 30 percent of assessed bays and estuarine square miles were classified as polluted. Surface water pollution includes pollution of rivers, lakes and oceans.
A subset of surface water pollution is marine pollution. One common path of entry by contaminants to the sea are rivers. An example is directly discharging sewage and industrial waste into the ocean. Pollution such as this occurs particularly in developing nations. In fact, the 10 largest emitters of oceanic plastic pollution worldwide are, from the most to the least, China, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, and Bangladesh,  largely through the rivers Yangtze, Indus, Yellow, Hai, Nile, Ganges, Pearl, Amur, Niger, and the Mekong, and accounting for "90 percent of all the plastic that reaches the world's oceans.
Large gyres vortexes in the oceans trap floating plastic debris. Plastic debris can absorb toxic chemicals from ocean pollution, potentially poisoning any creature that eats it.
This results in obstruction of digestive pathways, which leads to reduced appetite or even starvation. There are a variety of secondary effects stemming not from the original pollutant, but a derivative condition. An example is silt -bearing surface runoff , which can inhibit the penetration of sunlight through the water column, hampering photosynthesis in aquatic plants.
Interactions between groundwater and surface water are complex. Consequently, groundwater pollution, also referred to as groundwater contamination, is not as easily classified as surface water pollution. The distinction of point vs. Analysis of groundwater contamination may focus on soil characteristics and site geology, hydrogeology , hydrology , and the nature of the contaminants.
Causes of groundwater pollution include: naturally-occurring geogenic , on-site sanitation systems, sewage , fertilizers and pesticide , commercial and industrial leaks, hydraulic fracturing , landfill leachate. Surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed as separate resources even though they are interrelated. Conversely, groundwater can also feed surface water sources. Sources of surface water pollution are generally grouped into two categories based on their origin.
Point source water pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, identifiable source, such as a pipe or ditch. Examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment plant , a factory, or a city storm drain. The U. Nonpoint source pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source. This type of pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area.
A common example is the leaching out of nitrogen compounds from fertilized agricultural lands. Contaminated storm water washed off of parking lots , roads and highways, called urban runoff , is sometimes included under the category of non-point sources.
This runoff becomes a point source because it is typically channeled into storm drain systems and discharged through pipes to local surface waters. The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals , pathogens , and physical changes such as elevated temperature and discoloration.
While many of the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring calcium , sodium , iron, manganese , etc. High concentrations of naturally occurring substances can have negative impacts on aquatic flora and fauna.
Oxygen -depleting substances may be natural materials such as plant matter e. Other natural and anthropogenic substances may cause turbidity cloudiness which blocks light and disrupts plant growth, and clogs the gills of some fish species. Alteration of water's physical chemistry includes acidity change in pH , electrical conductivity , temperature, and eutrophication.
Eutrophication is an increase in the concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem to an extent that increases the primary productivity of the ecosystem.
Depending on the degree of eutrophication, subsequent negative environmental effects such as anoxia oxygen depletion and severe reductions in water quality may occur, affecting fish and other animal populations.
Disease-causing microorganisms are referred to as pathogens. Pathogens can produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts.
Other microorganisms sometimes found in contaminated surface waters that have caused human health problems include:. High levels of pathogens may result from on-site sanitation systems septic tanks , pit latrines or inadequately treated sewage discharges. Some cities also have combined sewers , which may discharge untreated sewage during rain storms. Many of the chemical substances are toxic. Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence.
Thermal pollution, unlike chemical pollution, results in a change in the physical properties of water. Thermal pollution can also be caused by the release of very cold water from the base of reservoirs into warmer rivers. Water pollution may be analyzed through several broad categories of methods: physical, chemical and biological. Most involve collection of samples, followed by specialized analytical tests.
Some methods may be conducted in situ , without sampling, such as temperature. Government agencies and research organizations have published standardized, validated analytical test methods to facilitate the comparability of results from disparate testing events. Sampling of water for physical or chemical testing can be done by several methods, depending on the accuracy needed and the characteristics of the contaminant. Many contamination events are sharply restricted in time, most commonly in association with rain events.
For this reason "grab" samples are often inadequate for fully quantifying contaminant levels. Scientists gathering this type of data often employ auto-sampler devices that pump increments of water at either time or discharge intervals. Sampling for biological testing involves collection of plants and animals from the surface water body. Depending on the type of assessment, the organisms may be identified for biosurveys population counts and returned to the water body, or they may be dissected for bioassays to determine toxicity.
Common physical tests of water include temperature, solids concentrations e. Water samples may be examined using the principles of analytical chemistry. Many published test methods are available for both organic and inorganic compounds.
Frequently used methods include pH , biochemical oxygen demand BOD ,  : chemical oxygen demand COD ,  : nutrients nitrate and phosphorus compounds , metals including copper, zinc , cadmium , lead and mercury , oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons TPH , and pesticides. Biological testing involves the use of plant, animal or microbial indicators to monitor the health of an aquatic ecosystem. They are any biological species or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal what degree of ecosystem or environmental integrity is present.
Radionuclides are elements uranium , uranium , thorium , potassium 40, radium , carbon 14 etc. Out of the known radioisotopes only some are of environmental concern like strontium 90, tritium, plutonium , argon 41, cobalt 60, cesium , iodine , krypton 85 etc. These can be both beneficial and harmful, depending on the way in which they are used. We routinely use X-rays to examine bones for fractures, treat cancer with radiation and diagnose diseases with the help of radioactive isotopes. Radioactive substances when released into the environment are either dispersed or become concentrated in living organisms through the food chain. Other than naturally occurring radioisotopes, significant amounts are generated by human activity, including the operation of nuclear power plants, the manufacture of nuclear weapons, and atomic bomb testing. For example, strontium 90 behaves like calcium and is easily deposited and replaces calcium in the bone tissues.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The health effects of nuclear explosions are due primarily to air blast, thermal radiation, initial nuclear radiation, and residual nuclear radiation or fallout. Nuclear explosions produce air-blast effects similar to those produced by conventional explosives. The shock wave can directly injure humans by rupturing eardrums or lungs or by hurling people at high speed, but most casualties occur because of collapsing structures and flying debris. Thermal radiation. Unlike conventional explosions, a single nuclear explosion can generate an intense pulse of thermal radiation that can start fires and burn skin over large areas.
Water pollution guide website: information on sources of pollution and how they can be treated. Sewage is another name for waste water from domestic and industrial processes. Despite strict regulatory control, the Environment Agency data shows that the water and sewage industry accounted for almost a quarter of the serious water incidents in England and Wales in Agricultural processes such as uncontrolled spreading of slurries and manure, disposal of sheep dip, tillage, ploughing of the land, use of pesticides and fertilisers can cause water pollution. Accidental spills from milk dairies can also affect the quality of water. Every year there are about 3, pollution incidents involving oil and fuels in England and Wales. Oil spillages affect water quality in a number of ways.
Essay on Nuclear Pollution: Sources, Effects and Control Blast causes damage to lungs, ruptures eardrums, collapses structures and Control Measures: a.
Atmospheric pollution is not the only type of contamination that is harming living beings on the planet. And according to the European Environment Agency EEA , noise is responsible for 16, premature deaths and more than 72, hospitalisations every year in Europe alone. According to the WHO, noise is harmful when it exceeds 75 decibels dB and feels painful at levels above dB.
We tend to look skywards when talking about pollution, but this problem is not confined to our skies. The soil in which our fruit and vegetables grow is also suffering its consequences, the effects of which getting to us directly, for instance, through the aforementioned foodstuffs. The time has come to look after what lies under our feet! Soil pollution is mostly caused by chemical substances produced by human activity.
The destruction caused by the radioactive materials is because of the emissions of hazardous ionizing radiation radioactive decay like beta or alpha particles, gamma rays or neurons in the environment where they exist.
Пять секунд. Шесть секунд. - Утечка информации. - Никаких изменений. Внезапно Мидж судорожно указала на экран. - Смотрите. На экран выплыла надпись: КЛЮЧ К ШИФРУ-УБИЙЦЕ ПОДТВЕРЖДЕН - Укрепить защитные стены! - приказал Джабба.
Новый порядок букв показался не более вразумительным, чем оригинал. P F Е Е S Е S N R Е Т М Р F Н А I R W E О О 1 G М Е Е N N R М А Е N Е Т S Н А S D С N S I 1 А А I Е Е R В R N К S В L Е L О D 1 - Ясно как в полночь в подвале, - простонал Джабба. - Мисс Флетчер, - потребовал Фонтейн, - объяснитесь. Все глаза обратились к. Сьюзан внимательно вглядывалась в буквы.
Один голос был резкий, сердитый. Похоже, он принадлежал Филу Чатрукьяну. - Ты мне не веришь.
- Дамы и господа, - он опять тяжело вздохнул, - перед вами компьютерный агрессор-камикадзе… червь. - Червь? - с недоумением переспросил Бринкерхофф. Название показалось ему чересчур земным для такого агрессора. - Червь, - недовольно сказал Джабба. - Никакой усложненной структуры, один лишь инстинкт: жри, опорожняйся и ползи.
Это явно не было составной частью плана.
Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *