File Name: pathophysiology of hiv and aids .zip
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HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying a type of white blood cell that helps your body fight infection. This puts you at risk for serious infections and certain cancers.
AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. It happens when the body's immune system is badly damaged because of the virus. These symptoms may come and go within two to four weeks. This stage is called acute HIV infection. If the infection is not treated, it becomes chronic HIV infection.
Often, there are no symptoms during this stage. If it is not treated, eventually the virus will weaken your body's immune system.
Then the infection will progress to AIDS. This is the late stage of HIV infection. With AIDS, your immune system is badly damaged. You can get more and more severe infections. These are known as opportunistic infections OIs. Some people may not feel sick during the earlier stages of HIV infection.
So the only way to know for sure whether you have HIV is to get tested. A blood test can tell if you have HIV infection. Your health care provider can do the test, or you can use a home testing kit.
There is no cure for HIV infection, but it can be treated with medicines. This is called antiretroviral therapy ART. It also reduces the risk of spreading the virus to others. It's also important to take care of yourself. Making sure that you have the support you need, living a healthy lifestyle, and getting regular medical care can help you enjoy a better quality of life.
See, Play and Learn Images. Resources Reference Desk Find an Expert. What is HIV? What is AIDS? How does HIV spread? This is the most common way that it spreads. By sharing drug needles Through contact with the blood of a person with HIV From mother to baby during pregnancy , childbirth, or breastfeeding Who is at risk for HIV infection? This includes limiting the number of sexual partners you have and using latex condoms every time you have sex. If your or your partner is allergic to latex , you can use polyurethane condoms.
Getting tested and treated for sexually transmitted diseases STDs Not injecting drugs Talking to your health care provider about medicines to prevent HIV : PrEP pre-exposure prophylaxis is for people who don't already have HIV but are at very high risk of getting it. PrEP is daily medicine that can reduce this risk. It is only for emergency situations. Start Here. Diagnosis and Tests. Prevention and Risk Factors. Treatments and Therapies. Living With. Related Issues. Statistics and Research.
Clinical Trials. Article: Clinical therapeutic effects of topical agents in adult patients with human Article: Safety, adherence, and HIV-1 seroconversion among women using the dapivirine vaginal Article: Association between maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection and preterm birth: A Reference Desk.
Find an Expert. Nemours Foundation Also in Spanish. Older Adults. Patient Handouts.
HIV is commonly transmitted via unprotected sexual activity , blood transfusions , hypodermic needles , and from mother to child. Upon acquisition of the virus, the virus replicates inside and kills T helper cells , which are required for almost all adaptive immune responses. There is an initial period of influenza-like illness , and then a latent, asymptomatic phase. After the virus enters the body there is a period rapid viral replication , leading to an abundance of virus in the peripheral blood. During primary infection, the level of HIV may reach several million virus particles per milliliter of blood. A vigorous immune response eventually controls the infection and initiates the clinically latent phase. Continuous HIV replication results in a state of generalized immune activation persisting throughout the chronic phase.
The mechanism by which HIV infection transforms into AIDS disease is unclear. Several factors such as the decline in immune response.
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying a type of white blood cell that helps your body fight infection. This puts you at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. It happens when the body's immune system is badly damaged because of the virus.
Paul A. Volberding, Alexandra M. Anemia in human immunodeficiency virus HIV —infected patients can have serious implications, which vary from functional and quality-of-life decrements to an association with disease progression and decreased survival. In , 16 members of the Anemia in HIV Working Group, an expert panel of physicians involved in the care of HIV-infected patients that met first in , reconvened to assess new data and to translate these data into evidence-based treatment guidelines. The group reached consensus on the prevalence of anemia in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era; the risk factors that are independently associated with the development of anemia; the impact of anemia on quality of life, physical functioning, and survival; the impact of the treatment of hepatitis C virus coinfection on anemia in HIV-infected patients; evidence-based guidelines for treatment of anemia in HIV-infected patients, including the therapeutic role of epoetin alfa; and directions for future research. In , the Anemia in HIV Working Group issued a consensus statement addressing the impact of anemia on HIV-infected individuals, as well as treatment strategies and future research directions.
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