File Name: vroom work and motivation 1964 .zip
Vroom stresses and focuses on outcomes, and not on needs unlike Maslow and Herzberg. The theory states that the intensity of a tendency to perform in a particular manner is dependent on the intensity of an expectation that the performance will be followed by a definite outcome and on the appeal of the outcome to the individual. In short, Valence is the significance associated by an individual about the expected outcome.
Together with Edward Lawler and Lyman Porter, Victor Vroom suggested that the relationship between people's behavior at work and their goals was not as simple as was first imagined by other scientists. Vroom realized that an employee's performance is based on individuals factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. The theory suggests that although individuals may have different sets of goals, they can be motivated if they believe that:. Valence refers to the emotional orientations people hold with respect to outcomes [rewards].
Whereas Maslow and Herzberg look at the relationship between internal needs and the resulting effort expended to fulfil them, Vroom's expectancy theory separates effort which arises from motivation , performance, and outcomes. Vroom's expectancy theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain. Vroom realized that an employee's performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. He stated that effort, performance and motivation are linked in a person's motivation. He uses the variables Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence to account for this.
These 3 factors interact together to create a motivational force for an employee to work towards pleasure and avoid pain. The formula for this force is:. First Order Outcome is the behavior that results directly from the the effort an employee expends on the job. Second Order Outcome is anything good or bad that results from a first-order outcome. Contributors : Leopold De Sousa. Vroom took inspiration from this and worked on a general formulation of a theory dealing with the interaction of individual differences and situational variables. He decided to restrict himself to problems of individual behavior.
The Expectancy Theory of Motivation attempts to explain why people behave the way they do. Do you show up at the office early, work hard, and stay late. Why do you behave this way? Expectancy Theory basically states that a person behaves the way they do because they are motivated to select that behavior ahead of others because of what they expect the result of that behavior to be. We can then use this information as an input for creating motivated employees.
Vroom V H. Work and motivation. New York: Wiley, p. [Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh. PAJ. This book deals with the relationship be-.
I was impressed by the large amount of research being conducted in the field, but found the task of integrating that research and of identifying the progress made during the period of the review exceedingly difficult. In part, this difficulty was a result of the great differences among investigators in the phenomena they selected for study and the methods they used to study it. A more troublesome problem, however, was the apparent failure of many investigators to consider the possible theoretical implications of their research. Concepts tended to be highly specific and inadequately defined. There was little standardization of terminology and little consideration for the nature of the processes underlying empirical data.
New York: Wiley. Jenis kelamin, usia, level jabatan, dan tingkat pendidikan tidak memberikan kontribusi terhadap perbedaaan skor motivasi pada setiap kelompok yang menunjukkan bahwa motivasi karyawan tidak dipengaruhi oleh faktor — faktor demografis. This is affected by such things as:. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52, p.
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