File Name: education system in pakistan issues and problems creator.zip
Problem-based learning PBL is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of solving an open-ended problem found in trigger material. The PBL process does not focus on problem solving with a defined solution, but it allows for the development of other desirable skills and attributes.
This includes knowledge acquisition, enhanced group collaboration and communication. The PBL process was developed for medical education and has since been broadened in applications for other programs of learning. The process allows for learners to develop skills used for their future practice.
It enhances critical appraisal, literature retrieval and encourages ongoing learning within a team environment. The PBL tutorial process involves working in small groups of learners. Each student takes on a role within the group that may be formal or informal and the role often alternates. It is focused on the student's reflection and reasoning to construct their own learning. The Maastricht seven-jump process involves clarifying terms, defining problem s , brainstorming, structuring and hypothesis, learning objectives, independent study and synthesis.
The role of the tutor is to facilitate learning by supporting, guiding, and monitoring the learning process. This process is based on constructivism. PBL represents a paradigm shift from traditional teaching and learning philosophy,  which is more often lecture -based.
The constructs for teaching PBL are very different from traditional classroom or lecture teaching and often require more preparation time and resources to support small group learning. PBL can facilitate students to learn and understand complex concepts and theories such as STEM, engineering design problems, etc.
Wood defines problem-based learning as a process that uses identified issues within a scenario to increase knowledge and understanding. It maintains a higher level of motivation towards learning, and shows the importance of responsible, professional attitudes with teamwork values.
Problem-based learning has subsequently been adopted by other medical school programs  adapted for undergraduate instruction,    as well as K There are advantages of PBL.
It is student-focused, which allows for active learning and better understanding and retention of knowledge. It also helps to develop life skills that are applicable to many domains.
By harnessing collective group intellect , differing perspectives may offer different perceptions and solutions to a problem. Following are the advantages and limitations of problem-based learning. In problem-based learning the students are actively involved and they like this method. It encourages self-directed learning by confronting students with problems and stimulates the development of deep learning.
Problem-based learning gives emphasis to lifelong learning by developing in students the potential to determine their own goals, locate appropriate resources for learning and assume responsibility for what they need to know. Problem-based learning focuses on engaging students in finding solutions to real life situations and pertinent contextualized problems. In this method discussion forums collaborative research take the place of lecturing.
PBL fosters learning by involving students with the interaction of learning materials. They relate the concept they study with everyday activities and enhance their knowledge and understanding. Students also activate their prior knowledge and build on existing conceptual knowledge frameworks.
Students themselves resolve the problems that are given to them, they take more interest and responsibility for their learning.
They themselves will look for resources like research articles, journals, web materials, text books etc. By giving more significance to the meaning, applicability and relevance to the learning materials it leads to better understanding of the subjects learnt.
When students are given more challenging and significant problems are given it makes them more proficient. It will be also very helpful to them not only to visualise what it will be like applying that knowledge and expertise on their field of work or profession.
Project based learning is more of teamwork and collaborative learning. The teams or groups resolve relevant problems in collaboration and hence it fosters student interaction, teamwork and reinforces interpersonal skills.
Researchers say that students like problem-based learning classes rather than the traditional classes. The increase in the percentage of attendance of students and their attitude towards this approach itself makes it very clear that they are self-motivated. They enjoy this environment of learning for it is less threatening and they can learn independently. All these aspects make students more self-motivated and they pursue learning even after they leave the school or college.
Since the students are self-motivated, good teamwork, self-directed learning etc. The PBL students score higher than the students in traditional courses because of their learning competencies, problem solving, self-assessment techniques, data gathering, behavioral science etc.
PBL can serve as a platform for a discursive practices approach to culture that emphasizes the emergent, participant-constructed qualities of social phenomena while also acknowledging large-scale social forces. According to Wood , the major disadvantage to this process involves the utilization of resources and tutor facilitation. It requires more staff to take an active role in facilitation and group-led discussion and some educators find PBL facilitation difficult and frustrating.
It is resource-intensive because it requires more physical space and more accessible computer resources to accommodate simultaneous smaller group-learning.
Students may not have access to teachers who serve as the inspirational role models that traditional curriculum offers. Although students generally like and gain greater ability to solve real-life problems in problem-based learning courses, instructors of the methodology must often invest more time to assess student learning and prepare course materials, as compared to LBL instructors.
The problem of the problem-based learning is the traditional assumptions of the students. Most of the students might have spent their previous years of education assuming their teacher as the main disseminator of knowledge. Because of this understanding towards the subject matter students may lack the ability to simply wonder about something in the initial years of problem-based learning.
The instructors have to change their traditional teaching methodologies in order to incorporate problem-based learning. Their task is to question students' knowledge, beliefs, give only hints to correct their mistakes and guide the students in their research. All these features of problem-based learning may be foreign to some instructors; hence they find it difficult to alter their past habits.
The instructors have to adapt new assessment methods to evaluate the pupils' achievement. They have to incorporate written examinations with modified essay questions, practical examinations, peer and self assessments etc. Problem-based has also been considered slightly more favourable to female participants,  whilst having equivocal impacts on their male counterparts when compared to lecture based learning.
Sweller and others published a series of studies over the past twenty years that is relevant to problem-based learning, concerning cognitive load and what they describe as the guidance-fading effect. Certainly active problem solving is useful as learners become more competent, and better able to deal with their working memory limitations.
But early in the learning process, learners may find it difficult to process a large amount of information in a short time. Thus the rigors of active problem solving may become an issue for novices.
Once learners gain expertise the scaffolding inherent in problem-based learning helps learners avoid these issues. These studies were conducted largely based on individual problem solving of well-defined problems. Sweller proposed cognitive load theory to explain how novices react to problem solving during the early stages of learning.
They propose other forms of learning early in the learning process worked example, goal free problems, etc. Many forms of scaffolding have been implemented in problem-based learning to reduce the cognitive load of learners. These are most useful to enable decreasing "fading" the amount of guidance during problem solving. A gradual fading of guidance helps learners to slowly transit from studying examples to solving problems. In this case backwards fading [ clarification needed ] was found to be quite effective and assisting in decreasing the cognitive load on learners.
Evaluation of the effects of PBL learning in comparison to traditional instructional learning have proved to be a challenge. Various factors can influence the implementation of PBL: extent of PBL incorporation into curriculum, group dynamics, nature of problems used, facilitator influence on group, and the motivation of the learners.
There are also various outcomes of PBL that can be measured including knowledge acquisition and clinical competence. Implementing PBL in schools and Universities is a demanding process that requires resources, a lot of planning and organization.
Problem-based learning addresses the need to promote lifelong learning through the process of inquiry and constructivist learning. PBL follows a constructivist perspective in learning as the role of the instructor is to guide and challenge the learning process rather than strictly providing knowledge. Students are considered to be active agents who engage in social knowledge construction. PBL assists in processes of creating meaning and building personal interpretations of the world based on experiences and interactions.
Several studies support the success of the constructivist problem-based and inquiry learning methods. One large study tracked middle school students' performance on high-stakes standardized tests to evaluate the effectiveness of inquiry-based science. A systematic review of the effects of problem-based learning in medical school on the performance of doctors after graduation showed clear positive effects on physician competence.
This effect was especially strong for social and cognitive competencies such as coping with uncertainty and communication skills. Another study from Slovenia looked at whether students who learn with PBL are better at solving problems and if their attitudes towards mathematics were improved compared to their peers in a more traditional curriculum.
The study found that students who were exposed to PBL were better at solving more difficult problems; however, there was no significant difference in student attitude towards mathematics. In Malaysia , an attempt was made to introduce a problem-based learning model in secondary mathematics, with the aim of educating citizens to prepare them for decision-making in sustainable and responsible development. In Singapore , the most notable example of adopting PBL pedagogy in curriculum is Republic Polytechnic , the first polytechnic in Singapore to fully adopt PBL across all diploma courses.
Several medical schools have incorporated problem-based learning into their curricula following the lead of McMaster University Medical School , using real patient cases to teach students how to think like a clinician. More than eighty percent of medical schools in the United States now have some form of problem-based learning in their programs.
The curriculum integrates the basic and preclinical sciences while fostering an understanding of the biological, social, and moral contexts of human health and disease.
The students spend their last two clerkship years at University of California, San Francisco. The transdisciplinary field of ecological economics has embraced problem-based learning as a core pedagogy. A workbook developed by Joshua Farley, Jon Erickson , and Herman Daly organizes the problem-solving process into 1 building the problem base, 2 analyzing the problem, 3 synthesizing the findings, and 4 communicating the results.
Building the problem base includes choosing, defining, and structuring an ecological economic problem. Analysis is breaking down of a problem into understandable components.
Synthesis is the re-integration of the parts in a way that helps better understand the whole. Communication is the translation of results into a form relevant to stakeholders, broadly defined as the extended peer community. In Severiens and Schmidt's study of first year college students, they found that PBL and its focus on SDL led to motivation for students to maintain study pace, led to social and academic integration, encouraged development of cognitive skills, and fostered more study progress than students in a conventional learning setting.
PBL is also argued as a learning method that can promote the development of critical thinking skills.
There is an urgent need to reform the educational system to achieve universal primary education in Papua New Guinea PNG. Even after 35 years of independence, PNG has been struggling to educate an estimated 2 million elementary- and primary-aged children and faces numerous challenges in providing Education for All EFA. The study revealed that the quality of education has been deteriorated over the past few decades. Many schools in PNG do not have classrooms, teachers, and basic facilities. As a result, the children are losing interest in going to school.
we analyze the existing educational system of Pakistan in the above mentioned prologue Muhammad (SAS), in one of his favorite prayers as “O Creator –. Sustainer: the development of ability to tackle economic challenges. It is generally.
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Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original PDF on 28 September Retrieved 12 September Education in Bangladesh is overseen by the country's Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Primary and Mass Education is responsible for implementing policy for primary education and state-funded schools at a local level.
The sudden closure of university campuses across China and elsewhere has necessitated the virtual delivery of vast numbers of courses. And while there have been inevitable teething problems, observers are wondering whether the future might just have become the present. Joyce Lau reports.
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