File Name: psychology of ethnicity and ethnic groups .zip
Metrics details. Racism has been linked with poor health in studies in the United States. Little is known about prospective associations between racial discrimination and health outcomes in the United Kingdom UK.
A minority group, by its original definition, refers to a group of people whose practices, race, religion, ethnicity, or other characteristics are lesser in numbers than the main groups of those classifications. However in present-day sociology, a minority group refers to a category of people who experience relative disadvantage as compared to members of a dominant social group. The term "minority group" often occurs within the discourse of civil rights and collective rights , as members of minority groups are prone to differential treatment in the countries and societies in which they live. Louis Wirth defined a minority group as "a group of people who, because of their physical or cultural characteristics, are singled out from the others in the society in which they live for differential and unequal treatment, and who therefore regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination".
Metrics details. Racism has been linked with poor health in studies in the United States. Little is known about prospective associations between racial discrimination and health outcomes in the United Kingdom UK. Data were from ethnic minority i. Linear and logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, income, education and ethnicity. Prospective analyses also adjusted for baseline status on the outcome being evaluated. Racial discrimination was reported by UK adults belonging to ethnic minority groups who perceive racial discrimination experience poorer mental and physical health than those who do not.
These results highlight the need for effective interventions to combat racial discrimination in order to reduce inequalities in health. Peer Review reports.
Discrimination is defined as the differential treatment of an individual based on a socially ascribed characteristic [ 1 ]. In the United Kingdom UK , the Race Relations Act [ 2 ] outlawed discrimination on the grounds of colour, nationality and ethnic or national origins. Race remains a protected characteristic under contemporary equality law [ 3 ]. Despite this legislative effort, ethnic inequalities in education, work, health and criminal justice remain [ 4 ]. Against the backdrop of the vote to leave the European Union Brexit , hostility towards migrants and the growth in right-wing nationalist movements [ 9 ], these figures reflect a rise in reported racial discrimination in both the UK and Europe [ 5 , 6 ].
A growing body of research has investigated discrimination as a determinant of mental health [ 10 , 11 , 12 ] and to a lesser extent physical health [ 11 ]. In an early meta-analysis of studies, discrimination was linked with poor mental health, including psychological distress and decreased life satisfaction [ 11 ]. A sub-set of 36 studies in the review investigated associations with physical health.
Significant associations were detected in a pooled analysis with various outcomes including hypertension and acute cardiovascular responses to laboratory discrimination protocols. A more recent meta-analysis of studies focusing on discrimination and mental health outcomes alone, again observed that those who perceived discrimination had poorer mental health [ 12 ].
This finding was also detected in an independent analysis of cross-sectional studies linking racial discrimination with poor mental health [ 12 ]. Racism is a recognised social determinant of health and a driver of ethnic inequities in health [ 13 ]. It can be understood as a complex, organised system embedded in socio-political and historical contexts, that involves classifying ethnic groups into social hierarchies. These groups are ideologically assigned differential value, which drives disparities in access to power, resources and opportunities [ 14 , 15 ].
It occurs at both structural and individual levels self-reported experiences of racial discrimination [ 14 , 15 ]. Several reviews and meta-analyses have focused solely on perceived racial discrimination and health outcomes [ 13 , 16 , 17 , 18 ].
The largest study to date meta-analysed the results from studies and assessed both mental and physical health outcomes [ 16 ]. In this analysis, racial discrimination was associated with poorer overall mental health including greater psychological distress, poorer life satisfaction and poorer general mental functioning in independent analyses.
Racism was also linked with poorer general health and poorer physical health overall, though few effects remained significant when looking at specific physical health outcomes in separate analyses. Racial discrimination at the structural and individual level is theorised to impact health through several mechanisms [ 15 ]. At the structural level racial discrimination may operate through the unfair allocation of societal resources that are determinants of health e.
Another mechanism linking racial discrimination and health could be through the dysregulation of stress-related biological processes [ 20 ]. Frequent exposure to racial discrimination is a chronic stressor and has been linked with dysregulated cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and inflammatory processes [ 21 , 22 ] which in turn impact both physical and mental health.
Individual health risk e. Although a growing number of studies have investigated the link between racial discrimination and health, there are still areas where more research is required. The authors aimed to compare the effect sizes of the cross-sectional and prospective studies included in their review but were unable to conduct this analysis for the physical outcomes data, emphasising the need for more prospective studies on physical health outcomes in particular.
Further, the literature is dominated by United States US -based studies drawn from convenience samples [ 12 , 16 ]. In the latest racism and health meta-analysis, over one third of the articles included were drawn from student samples and only nine 2. This is important as the makeup of ethnic minority groups in the UK differs from that of the US, with those of South Asian backgrounds forming the largest minority group [ 25 ].
In addition, all of the UK studies were cross-sectional in nature and focused on mental health, with physical outcomes such as the number of physical illnesses [ 26 ] and self-rated health [ 27 ] included in only two of the studies. To date, one UK study has assessed the relationship between racial discrimination and health prospectively.
They also reported a dose-response relationship between the experience of racial discrimination and mental health, with those who reported racial discrimination at more than one timepoint over a 3-year period experiencing a greater deterioration in mental functioning. Overall, there is a dearth of prospective evidence on the link between racial discrimination and health in UK samples, particularly in relation to physical health outcomes.
To address these gaps in the literature, the present study set out to assess cross-sectional and prospective associations between racial discrimination and health in a large community-dwelling UK population cohort. Specifically, we were interested in psychological distress, mental functioning and life satisfaction, as indicators of mental health, as well as self-rated health and physical functioning as markers of physical health, along with limiting longstanding illness as an indicator of impairment.
We hypothesised that those who perceived racial discrimination would have poorer health across all measures both cross-sectionally and prospectively. If they answered yes to any one of these questions, a follow-up question asked them to choose an attribution for the discrimination from a list of categories including ethnicity, nationality, age, and sex among others.
Participants could choose multiple settings and attributions for the perceived discrimination. Those who attributed any experience of discrimination to their ethnicity or nationality are treated as cases of perceived racial discrimination in our analyses. Those who did not perceive any form of discrimination serve as the comparison group in our analyses. Those who reported other non-racial forms of discrimination were not included in the analysis. This measure has been used in previous investigations to look at the link between perceived discrimination and health outcomes [ 28 , 31 , 32 ].
Psychological distress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire GHQ [ 33 ], in line with previous studies [ 31 , 32 ]. This tool has been validated as a screening tool to detect psychological distress in community samples [ 34 ]. After totalling, the overall score ranged from 0 least distressed to 12 most distressed. The item short-form health survey SF mental component summary score was used to measure limitations caused by emotional, mental health and social functioning issues [ 35 ], in keeping with previous studies [ 31 , 32 ].
This tool has been validated for use as a measure of mental functioning in community samples [ 35 , 36 ]. Single item measures of life satisfaction are widely used in survey studies [ 39 ] This measure has been used in previous investigations to assess the link between discrimination and life satisfaction [ 31 , 32 ].
Self-reported limiting longstanding illness has been investigated in relation to perceived discrimination in other studies [ 40 , 41 ]. The SF physical component summary score was used to measure limitations caused by deficits in physical functioning [ 35 ].
Overall scores were derived using standard methods ranging from 0 low functioning to high functioning [ 37 ]. This tool has been validated for use as a measure of physical functioning in community samples [ 35 , 36 ]. This single item measure has been shown to have good predictive validity for health outcomes [ 42 ].
Our analyses included covariates that are likely relevant to racial discrimination and physical and mental health. All covariates were assessed at wave 1. Age in years was included as a continuous variable. Socioeconomic status is an important contributor to racial disparities in health [ 43 ]. Racial discrimination can compound these inequalities.
Equivalised monthly household income was computed by dividing total household net income by the modified Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD equivalence scale to account for the effects of household size and composition [ 44 ].
We included ethnicity as a 6-level variable with these 5 main UK minority groups and 1 additional category of non-white individuals from a range of other minority backgrounds including Chinese, Arab and mixed ethnic backgrounds among others.
The characteristics of those who did and those who did not report racial discrimination at wave 1 were compared using Chi-squared tests for categorical variables and independent samples t-tests for continuous variables. Associations between racial discrimination and the mental and physical health measures were assessed using linear regression for continuous outcomes and binary logistic regression for categorical outcomes.
For the mental health analyses, psychological distress, mental functioning and life satisfaction were the outcome variables. For the impairment analysis limiting longstanding illness was the outcome variable. For the physical health analyses, physical functioning and self-rated health were the outcome variables. Age, sex, household income, education and ethnicity at wave 1 were adjusted for in all analyses.
We tested for interactions between racial discrimination and age, sex, income, education or ethnicity on the mental and physical health outcomes at both waves 1 and 3. No significant effects were detected. Thus, interaction terms were not included in our final reported models.
Unstandardized Bs and ORs rather than p values should be used to determine the strength of associations. All analyses were conducted using SPSS v. To test the robustness of our findings, we conducted three sets of sensitivity analyses. In our first, we investigated whether a certain type of discriminatory experience i. We tested this by removing each type of discriminatory experience from the exposure variable in turn, as has been done in previous investigations [ 31 , 32 , 40 ]. In the second sensitivity analysis, we assessed whether participants who were lost to follow-up differed from those who provided data at both waves, and tested whether this influenced the findings by conducting the cross-sectional analyses wave 1 including only those who provided follow-up data at wave 3.
In our final sensitivity analysis, we assessed whether the associations between racial discrimination and our health outcomes varied depending on ethnic group South Asian, Black or Other , as there is currently limited evidence in this area outside of the US context [ 16 ].
A total of participants were included in our analysis and of these Those who perceived racial discrimination were younger on average and were more likely to hold a university degree than those who did not perceive racial discrimination. There were no differences in sex or income, but reports of racial discrimination did vary by ethnic group.
Those in the Indian The impairment and physical health results are displayed in the lower panel of Table 3. Prospectively, the association between racial discrimination and all the mental health measures and limiting longstanding illness remained the same regardless of the type of discriminatory experience removed from the measure Table 4 , lower panel.
For the cross-sectional analyses, the findings for psychological distress and mental functioning did not vary by ethnic group. For the prospective analyses, there was no group difference for the impairment and physical health outcomes.
This finding remained non-significant for the South Asian and Black groups. In this large UK-based prospective sample of ethnic minority participants, we detected associations between racial discrimination and poorer health. Cross-sectionally, those who reported racial discrimination had a greater likelihood on average of limiting longstanding illness and poor self-rated health, than those who did not report racial discrimination.
Racial discrimination was associated greater psychological distress, lower life satisfaction, and poorer physical and mental functioning. In prospective analyses, those who reported racial discrimination had a greater likelihood on average of limiting longstanding illness and poor self-rated health than those who did not report racial discrimination.
Sociology uses and critiques the concepts of race and ethnicity, connecting them to the idea of majority and minority groups and social structures of inequality, power, and stratification. The sociological perspective explores how race and ethnicity are socially constructed and how individuals identify with one or more. Research demonstrates how they are linked to social position and to political and policy debates about issues such as immigration, identity formation, and inter-group relations including racism. See more Research on Race and Ethnicity. A best seller for many years, this invaluable reference has been published by the ASA since and provides comprehensive information for academic administrators, advisers, faculty, students, and a host of others seeking information on social science departments in the U.
debate among psychologists and educators on the issue of IQ and race to show how present alternatives of "ethnic group" and "ethnicity" which would more.
Ethnic conflict , a form of conflict in which the objectives of at least one party are defined in ethnic terms, and the conflict, its antecedents , and possible solutions are perceived along ethnic lines. The conflict is usually not about ethnic differences themselves but over political, economic, social, cultural, or territorial matters. Ethnic conflict is one of the major threats to international peace and security. Conflicts in the Balkans , Rwanda , Chechnya , Iraq , Indonesia , Sri Lanka , India , and Darfur , as well as in Israel , the West Bank , and the Gaza Strip , are among the best-known and deadliest examples from the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The destabilization of provinces, states, and, in some cases, even whole regions is a common consequence of ethnic violence. Ethnic conflicts are often accompanied by gross human rights violations, such as genocide and crimes against humanity, and by economic decline, state failure , environmental problems, and refugee flows.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. I n Chapter 3 , we developed a two-part definition of racial discrimination: differential treatment on the basis of race that disadvantages a racial group and treatment on the basis of inadequately justified factors other than race that disadvantages a racial group differential effect. We focus our discussion on discrimination against disadvantaged racial minorities. Our definition encompasses both individual behaviors and institutional practices.
Keywords: ContextDevelopmental psychologyEthnic identityEthnicity The Ethnic and Racial Identity in the 21st Century Study Group Retrieved from http://reddingvwclub.org Barth.
Race and ethnicity are used to categorize certain sections of the population. In basic terms, race describes physical traits, and ethnicity refers to cultural identification. Race may also be identified as something you inherit while ethnicity is something you learn. This article details the differences between race and ethnicity and also defines the ways in which various groups are categorized according to the United States Census Bureau. Race is usually associated with biology and linked with physical characteristics, such as hair texture or skin color and covers a relatively narrow range of options. While some may be considered to be of a certain race, Black for example, people may identify more with their individual ethnicity, as opposed to race.
Ethnicity has become a key but contested analytical concept used to distinguish human groups in the wider social sciences and everyday life. It tends to refer to the classification of people and boundaries between groups that are based on shared ideas or myths of a common origin, descent, and history. Ethnicity is often associated with minority cultural, racial, religious groups that are different than a majority, especially in everyday speech. However, it has become increasingly used to describe majority e. Ethnicity is also, importantly, a relational concept about demarcations and involves the construction of similarities and differences between two or more groups in social interaction.
Drawing on self-construal theory, social identity theory, and value theory, we conducted a review of literature, in-depth interviews, semi-structured questionnaires, and expert reviews. Data were collected from three samples of Chinese ethnic minorities mainly college students.
Ethnic identity development includes the identity formation in an individual's self-categorization in, and psychological attachment to, an ethnic group s. Ethnic identity is characterized as part of one's overarching self-concept and identification. It is distinct from the development of ethnic group identities.
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