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Milk Productin And Value Chain Phd Thesis Pdf

milk productin and value chain phd thesis pdf

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The paper proposes an enhancement to a focal company in the dairy supply chain, in order to support sustainable performance. The authors conclude that previous life cycle assessment LCA studies did not recommend for dairy supply chain or use this approach to assess the environmental impacts in this chain. A cradle-to-gate attributional life cycle assessment LCA study performed in a focal company and considering its transport and processing stages, and three scenarios were proposed as suitable. The impacts derive from energy use and transportation of feedstocks, and the use of cleaning products and certain types of packaging materials.

Gender aspects in the dairy value chain in Tanzania: A review of literature

Citation of this paper. Gender inequalities in the dairy value chain in Tanzania cannot be over emphasized. A desk review of 29 published and 32 gray literature was done to analyze gender inequalities in the Tanzanian dairy value chain from independence to date. Lack of sex disaggregated data used for monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment of the interventions soon after independence was among the outcome of the study. Further, women, unlike men, lack skills for enhancing dairy income generation owing to their limited access to training and other technologies.

The projects also appear to have a low commitment to address the gender issues identified which could be due to a low political will or a low capacity to collect sex disaggregated data, conduct gender analysis of the recommended interventions that will narrow the gender gaps and implement these recommendations.

The authors recommend projects to recruit gender experts and train project staff on the economic benefits of integrating gender and how to mainstream gender in projects including collecting sex disaggregated data, analyzing it by gender and how to develop indicators to measure progress. The projects should be informed by comprehensive gender mainstreaming strategies that indicate how gender will be mainstreamed at every step of the project cycle.

Ways of creating space for and maintaining women in male dominating nodes of the dairy value chain should be sought, tested and applied by research and development actors. Key words: gender inequalities, nodes of the dairy value chain, participation. Men and women actors in the livestock value chain have different needs, interests and constraints as far as livestock management is concerned.

To understand these varying interests and address the associated constraints among actors, adoption of the value chain approach to development of the dairy sector is considered to be imperative Jeckonih et al The value chain approach to development has been used by various development actors including government institutions, local and international non-governmental organizations, and research institutions.

Little attention has been paid on the gender relations among actors in the chains. Without considering gender relations, the chain is more likely to have a negative impact on women and other gender groups including the youth and children.

For instance, women perform more of work, but receive fewer benefits than their male counterparts. In order to address the gender inequalities in the dairy value chain, a systematic analysis at each node of the value chain is required so that they are clearly understood. Mutua et al recommend a critical analysis of what all players in the different nodes do and accrue from these nodes.

Doing this could inform various interventions that could then lead to equitable sharing of benefits and a reduction in the gender income and poverty gap between men and women. This is because gender relations essentially shape processes within and between the nodes of the dairy value chain while molding the behaviours of men and women that influence efficiency and competitiveness of value chains in the market Mutua et al In order to systematically analyze the dairy value chain in Tanzania, information gathering was an inevitable process.

Information for this paper was obtained through a desk review of gray and published literature and key informant interviews with dairy value chain stakeholders in Tanzania. Underlying causes of issues identified from literature on gender and ways of addressing the causes of inequalities derived from lessons from past interventions associated with narrowing the gender benefit gaps between men and women value chain actors.

Among the benefits considered include access to and control over milk and income obtained from the sale of milk. Historically, the dairy industry in Tanzania has gone through various changes. For example, during the colonial era, there were very few large scale farms owned by the colonial government and settlers located in the Northern and Southern parts of Tanzania Kurwijila Dairy cattle were kept in the intensive system and the main market for milk was in urban areas mainly in Dar es salaam.

In , the colonial government withdrew completely from dealing with milk production, processing and marketing and left to private operators Njombe et al From private commercial farms and processing plants developed and dominated the industry. The law stated that Zonal Dairy Boards ZDBs should be established in areas with sufficient production of milk to allow establishment of dairy plants. In its initiatives towards improving the dairy industry, in the government put more efforts towards increasing milk production through establishment of parastatal medium and large scale dairy farms, livestock multiplication units, milk processing plants and milk marketing infrastructures.

Profits from sale of the reconstituted milk were used for development of the Dairy Industry. Furthermore, lack of foreign currency and high yielder dairy cattle were among the stumbling blocks towards advancement of the sector Kurwijila These changes also coincided with economic reforms in which the government withdrew from performing production, marketing and milk processing Kurwijila ; Mutagwaba Owing to these reforms, individuals and agencies joined the dairy industry as milk producers, processors and marketing agents Kurwijila ; Njombe et al Performing all these functions, required an organ for regulation, hence the government enacted a Dairy Industry Act No.

The Tanzania Dairy Board was inaugurated in with an objective of developing and regulating the dairy industry. The Board members are from the Government, milk producers, processors, milk traders, input suppliers and consumers.

Currently, dairy cattle are concentrated in the cool highland regions of Kilimanjaro and Arusha, Southern Highlands Mbeya and Iringa , as well as Tanga and Kagera. They keep dairy cattle and process milk into various products such as cultured milk, yoghurt and cheese.

These products are sold to various consumers such as school children, individuals and tourists. There are two major processing plants in the southern highlands Iringa and Mbeya. CEFA Njombe Factory has an installed capacity of 10, litres per day, but currently processing only liters per day.

Little information is available on gender aspects of the dairy value chain, this study was carried out to bridge the knowledge gap. This paper draws information from a review of published and gray literatures. A summary table on articles reviewed is given in Table 1 below and Information collected was analyzed using the content analysis method.

Table 1. A summary of articles reviewed. Prior to independence, the capital based infrastructure on which the dairy industry was built was put in place. During that period — predating there was no gender consideration in the development process, therefore, majority of the actors in the commercial dairy enterprises, which required a certain level of literacy and numeracy, were men as there were few educated women Maeda-Machangu The review has clearly shown that the government identified areas with conducive environment for establishment of the milk processing plants in the Northern part of Tanzania Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Mara and in the Southern highlands Iringa and Mbeya where the temperature and availability of fodder were more conducive for the survival of exotic breeds of cattle and their crosses being introduced for commercial dairy production.

Milk from other parts of the country, therefore, continued to be sold in the local markets and few private dairy processing plants, which could not absorb all milk produced especially in the rainy season when cows produced large quantities.

In the s all the processing plants were possessed by the government after the enactment of the Arusha declaration. The government, like the rest of the world, did not pay attention to the gender as it continued to develop the dairy value chain.

Consideration for gender issues in the dairy value chain started mainly from the s — like for other development projects globally — and was introduced in Tanzania by the international programmes such as Heifer International and FAO Maeda-Machangu ; SHDDP Gender considerations have continued in unsystematic ways. Figure 1.

The milk prices indicated in various nodes were adopted from the study conducted by Moremilk project in Sikira et al Note the prices indicated vary according to the production system and size of the packaging material. For instance prices at farm level in the extensive system was Tshs per liter while in the intensive system the price ranged from Tshs per liter.

For the processed milk, the packaging material depends on the targeted consumers. Gender issues in the production node include the well demarcated gender roles emanating from cultural norms. Men and women are active participants in the production node of the dairy value chain in intensive and extensive systems. Division of gender roles differ from one context to another, for instance in Nepal, men perform various activities including milking Paudel et al , whereas among most communities in Tanzania and Kenya, women do the milking.

Unlike for women, roles performed by men at this node involve high mobility, which enables men to have access to new technology and information FAO Traditionally among the Maasai of Tanzania, women are assigned the role of taking care of the calves and sick animals that are herded near the home, while men herd animals outside the home.

In other parts of Tanzania, such as the Mara region, women herd animals in the field Sikira Women perform multiple roles relative to men and hired labourers Sikira et al For example, Saghir et al in a study conducted in selected villages of Morogoro and Kongwa districts in Tanzania revealed that women perform most of the activities in agriculture as well as in livestock management.

Another study done by Sikira et al revealed that men performed fewer activities than women in both dry and rainy seasons. In the northern and southern parts of Tanzania roles such as herding and watering of calves, milking of cows, cleaning the animal shed and preparing food for the herdsmen are done by women.

In the extensive livestock production system, women spend much time milking as there are more lactating cows and milking is done twice during the rainy season than in the dry season. The majority of the actors in this node are young men capable of collecting milk from the producers to the collection centre or taking milk directly to the consumers. According to Nombo and Sikira , collecting milk from the extensive system is difficult as producers stay far from urban and peri-urban areas where there are milk collection centers, milk kiosks and individual buyers.

The study also observed that fewer women than men participate at this node. The few who, participate buy milk from intensive zero-grazing producers in urban centers. Majority of young men involved in hawking transported milk from farms to collection centers with bicycles and motorcycles. Women are less likely to use bicycles and motorcycles for transport because they lack capital to buy them, which results in their exclusion from this node.

Furthermore, based on the risks of the job particularly the need to wake up very early in the morning 4. Women constitute a large proportion of actors at the small scale processing node because most of the processing activities done fall under the traditional roles assigned to women. Women processors use various technologies to reduce workload and they are acquired through training offered by NGOs, government institutions and private sector Majurin Equipment used at processing plants are considered to be women friendly, e.

On the other hand, large processing plants are managed by men, e. All activities including heating of milk are done by men provided that there is a commercial value. Gender norms that define gender roles are, therefore, dynamic because they are socially constructed to establish, maintain and sustain power of hierarchies among genders.

While men are responsible for selling animals and overall decision making on livestock, women traditionally sell milk. Women are dominant in milk sale when there is no formal market; however, when a formal market is established women are pushed out of the market. This trend was reported by researchers in the Southern part of Tanzania Iringa and Mbeya regions as well as in the northern part of Tanga region Mkenda-Mugittu Milk produced in Tanzania is mainly sold at the informal market by smallholder farmers mainly women.

This could be prevented by ensuring that women get a fair share of benefits whether men take over marketing of milk or not by for example empowering them in ways that can enable them to negotiate for a fair share of benefits. Women experience limited mobility which denies them access to distant markets and prevents them from exploring multiple options for benefits from other economic ventures EADD Women lack access to transport for example, access to money for transport, safety while traveling due to gendered asymmetries in intra-household decision-making powers.

Other reasons include the reproductive roles that often tie them to home or close to home. Moreover, most women in Tanzania are illiterate and cannot make business transactions. In addition, the bargaining power of illiterate women is poor Mkenda-Mugittu In this regard, cultural gender norms have taken these freedoms and development away from women. Milk collection centers are mainly installed in areas with high milk production such as in the Southern highlands, the Northern and Eastern parts of Tanzania.

The major actors are both men and women. Presence of inputs increases working efficiency of the dairy value chain.

Optimisation of the food dairy coop supply chain

Citation of this paper. Gender inequalities in the dairy value chain in Tanzania cannot be over emphasized. A desk review of 29 published and 32 gray literature was done to analyze gender inequalities in the Tanzanian dairy value chain from independence to date. Lack of sex disaggregated data used for monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment of the interventions soon after independence was among the outcome of the study. Further, women, unlike men, lack skills for enhancing dairy income generation owing to their limited access to training and other technologies.

Selmira Flores. Agarwal, B. Ammour, T. Artola, N. Bourdieu, P. Carswell, G. Coles, C.

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milk productin and value chain phd thesis pdf

Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). Institute of to evaluate food-borne infectious disease risks along dairy value chains supplying present in both mtindi and other fermented milk products which are consumed manual offers no useful conceptual overview of what comprises a livestock value.


Milk value chain analysis: industry competitiveness and the dairy policy environment in Pakistan

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