File Name: drug and chemical toxicology .zip
Food and Chemical Toxicology FCT , an internationally renowned journal, that publishes original research articles and reviews on toxic effects , in animals and humans, of natural or synthetic chemicals occurring in the human environment with particular emphasis on food, drugs, and chemicals, including agricultural and industrial safety , and consumer product safety.
LD 50 figures are frequently used as a general indicator of a substance's acute toxicity. A lower LD 50 is indicative of increased toxicity. The test was created by J. Trevan in LD 50 is usually determined by tests on animals such as laboratory mice.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism. By extension, the word may be metaphorically used to describe toxic effects on larger and more complex groups, such as the family unit or society at large. Sometimes the word is more or less synonymous with poisoning in everyday usage. A central concept of toxicology is that the effects of a toxicant are dose -dependent; even water can lead to water intoxication when taken in too high a dose, whereas for even a very toxic substance such as snake venom there is a dose below which there is no detectable toxic effect. Considering the limitations of this dose-response concept, a novel Drug Toxicity Index DTI has been proposed recently. Toxicity is species-specific, making cross-species analysis problematic. Newer paradigms and metrics are evolving to bypass animal testing , while maintaining the concept of toxicity endpoints.
The field of cytochrome P P research has developed considerably over the past 20 years, and many important papers on the roles of Ps in chemical toxicology have appeared in Chemical Research in Toxicology. Today, our basic understanding of many of the human Ps is relatively well-established, in terms of the details of the individual genes, sequences, and basic catalytic mechanisms. Crystal structures of several of the major human Ps are now in hand. The animal Ps are still important in the context of metabolism and safety testing. Many well-defined examples exist for roles of Ps in decreasing the adverse effects of drugs through biotransformation, and an equally interesting field of investigation is the bioactivation of chemicals, including drugs. Unresolved problems include the characterization of the minor "orphan" Ps, ligand cooperativity and kinetic complexity of several Ps, the prediction of metabolism, the overall contribution of bioactivation to drug idiosyncratic problems, the extrapolation of animal test results to humans in drug development, and the contribution of genetic variation in human Ps to cancer incidence. Abstract The field of cytochrome P P research has developed considerably over the past 20 years, and many important papers on the roles of Ps in chemical toxicology have appeared in Chemical Research in Toxicology.
We provide comprehensive urine toxicology services you can use for. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. What are synthetic cathinones? Synthetic cathinones, more commonly known as bath salts, are human-made stimulants chemically related to cathinone, a substance found in the khat plant. Phenylpropanolamine - Wiki.
Serotonin syndrome occurs when you take medications that cause high levels of the chemical serotonin to accumulate in your body. Serotonin is a chemical your body produces that's needed for your nerve cells and brain to function. But too much serotonin causes signs and symptoms that can range from mild shivering and diarrhea to severe muscle rigidity, fever and seizures. Severe serotonin syndrome can cause death if not treated. Serotonin syndrome can occur when you increase the dose of certain medications or add a new drug to your regimen.
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