File Name: creswell designing and conducting mixed methods research .zip
Recently updated as the second edition, this book offers personal examples of research studies, concrete templates and formats, and covers qualitative research from the need to conduct a qualitative study to all steps in the process of research from a problem statement to writing the conclusions. For all three approaches, John W. Creswell and new co-author J. David Creswell include a preliminary consideration of philosophical assumptions; key elements of the research process; a review of the literature; an assessment of the use of theory in research applications, and reflections about the importance of writing and ethics in scholarly inquiry.
Language: English German. We explain the seven major design dimensions: purpose, theoretical drive, timing simultaneity and dependency , point of integration, typological versus interactive design approaches, planned versus emergent design, and design complexity.
There also are multiple secondary dimensions that need to be considered during the design process. We explain ten secondary dimensions of design to be considered for each research study.
We also provide two case studies showing how the mixed designs were constructed. This article addresses the process of selecting and constructing mixed methods research MMR designs. In mixed methods design, both meanings are relevant. Note that each research tradition receives an equal number of letters four in its abbreviation for equity. In this article, this notation system is used in some depth. These characteristics are discussed below.
In the mixed methods literature, various typologies of mixed methods designs have been proposed for an overview see Creswell and Plano Clark , p. Ultimately, mixed methods research is about heightened knowledge and validity. This classification is still in use Greene Triangulation seeks convergence, corroboration, correspondence of results from different methods;. Complementarity seeks elaboration, enhancement, illustration, clarification of the results from one method with the results from the other method;.
Development seeks to use the results from one method to help develop or inform the other method, where development is broadly construed to include sampling and implementation, as well as measurement decisions;.
Initiation seeks the discovery of paradox and contradiction, new perspectives of frameworks, the recasting of questions or results from one method with questions or results from the other method;.
Expansion seeks to extend the breadth and range of inquiry by using different methods for different inquiry components. Bryman, p. The number of possible purposes for mixing is very large and is increasing; hence, it is not possible to provide an exhaustive list. Fuller and richer information will be obtained in the mixed methods study. Due to the decisive character of the core component, the core component must be able to stand on its own, and should be implemented rigorously.
The supplemental component does not have to stand on its own. Although this distinction is useful in some circumstances, we do not advise to apply it to every mixed methods design. In addition, the idea of decreased rigor is in conflict with one key theme of the present article, namely that mixed methods designs should always meet the criterion of multiple validities legitimation Onwuegbuzie and Johnson The idea of theoretical drive as explicated by Morse and Niehaus has been criticized.
For example, if one study includes multiple research questions, it might include several theoretical drives Schoonenboom We agree with Greene that mixed methods research can be integrated at the levels of method, methodology, and paradigm. In this view, equal-status mixed methods research designs are possible, and they result when both the qualitative and the quantitative components, approaches, and thinking are of equal value, they take control over the research process in alternation, they are in constant interaction, and the outcomes they produce are integrated during and at the end of the research process.
This researcher takes as his or her starting point the logic and philosophy of mixed methods research. These mixed methods researchers are likely to believe that qualitative and quantitative data and approaches will add insights as one considers most, if not all, research questions. By successfully conducting an equal-status study, the pragmatist researcher shows that paradigms can be mixed or combined, and that the incompatibility thesis does not always apply to research practice.
Timing has two aspects: simultaneity and dependence Guest Note that the use of capital letters for one component and lower case letters for another component in the same design suggest that one component is primary and the other is secondary or supplemental. Some designs are sequential by nature. It is possible, e. It is also possible to conduct the interviews after the survey data have been collected or vice versa ; in that case, research activities are performed sequentially.
We call two research components dependent if the implementation of the second component depends on the results of data analysis in the first component. Two research components are independent , if their implementation does not depend on the results of data analysis in the other component. It is also possible to let the interview questions depend upon the outcomes of the analysis of the questionnaire data or vice versa ; in that case, research activities are performed dependently.
In our opinion, simultaneity and dependence are two separate dimensions. Simultaneity indicates whether data collection is done concurrent or sequentially. Dependence indicates whether the implementation of one component depends upon the results of data analysis of the other component. It is conceivable that one simultaneously conducts interviews and collects questionnaire data concurrent , while allowing the analysis focus of the interviews to depend on what emerges from the survey data dependence.
Using the outcomes of the first research component, the researcher decides what to do in the second component. Depending on the outcomes of the first research component, the researcher will do something else in the second component. If this is so, the research activities involved are said to be sequential-dependent, and any component preceded by another component should appropriately build on the previous component see sequential validity legitimation ; Johnson and Christensen ; Onwuegbuzie and Johnson Determining where the point of integration will be, and how the results will be integrated, is an important, if not the most important, decision in the design of mixed methods research.
Morse and Niehaus identify two possible points of integration: the results point of integration and the analytical point of integration. Most commonly, integration takes place in the results point of integration. At some point in writing down the results of the first component, the results of the second component are added and integrated.
Other authors assume more than two possible points of integration. Teddlie and Tashakkori distinguish four different stages of an investigation: the conceptualization stage, the methodological experimental stage data collection , the analytical experimental stage data analysis , and the inferential stage. According to these authors, in all four stages, mixing is possible, and thus all four stages are potential points or integration. However, the four possible points of integration used by Teddlie and Tashakkori are still too coarse to distinguish some types of mixing.
It is at the point of integration that qualitative and quantitative components are integrated. Some primary ways that the components can be connected to each other are as follows:. More generally, one can consider mixing at any or all of the following research components: purposes, research questions, theoretical drive, methods, methodology, paradigm, data, analysis, and results.
One can also include mixing views of different researchers, participants, or stakeholders. Substantively, it can be useful to think of integration or mixing as comparing and bringing together two or more components on the basis of one or more of the purposes set out in the first section of this article. In the case of development, integration consists of an adjustment of an, often quantitative, for example, instrument or model or interpretation, based on qualitative assessments by members of the target group.
The power of mixed methods research is its ability to deal with diversity and divergence. In the literature, we find two kinds of strategies for dealing with divergent results. One possibility is to carry out further research Cook ; Greene and Hall Further research is not always necessary.
The aim is to develop an overall explanation that fits both the sense and the anti-sense Bazeley and Kemp ; Mendlinger and Cwikel Alternatively, one can question the existence of the encountered divergence.
Differences between results from different data sources could also be the result of properties of the methods involved, rather than reflect differences in reality Yanchar and Williams In general, the conclusions of the individual components can be subjected to an inference quality audit Teddlie and Tashakkori , in which the researcher investigates the strength of each of the divergent conclusions. As already mentioned in Sect. Note, however, that not all types of typologies are equally suitable for all purposes.
Although some of the current MM design typologies include more designs than others, none of the current typologies is fully exhaustive. Various typologies of mixed methods designs have been proposed. Our summary of these designs runs as follows:. At each stage, one approach affects the formulation of the other, and multiple types of implementation processes can occur. We expect that many published MM designs will fall into the hybrid design type.
Morse and Niehaus listed eight mixed methods designs in their book and suggested that authors create more complex combinations when needed. Our shorthand labels and descriptions adapted from Morse and Niehaus , p. Notice that Morse and Niehaus included four mixed methods designs the first four designs shown above and four multimethod designs the second set of four designs shown above in their typology.
The reader can, therefore, see that the design notation also works quite well for multimethod research designs. In addition, they assume that the core component should always be performed either concurrent with or before the supplemental component. The resulting mixed methods design matrix see Johnson and Christensen , p. The above set of nine designs assumed only one qualitative and one quantitative component. However, this simplistic assumption can be relaxed in practice, allowing the reader to construct more complex designs.
The Morse notation system is very powerful. Something similar applies to the classification of the purposes of mixed methods research. Of all purposes involved, then, which one should be the primary basis for the design? Or should the design be based upon all purposes included? And if so, how?
The most frequently mentioned interactive approach to mixed methods research is the approach by Maxwell and Loomis The researcher should therefore regularly check during the research and continuing design process whether the components still fit together, and, if not, should adapt one or the other component to restore the fit between them. In an interactive approach, unlike the typological approach, design is viewed as an interactive process in which the components are continually compared during the research study to each other and adapted to each other.
Typological and interactive approaches to mixed methods research have been presented as mutually exclusive alternatives. In our view, however, they are not mutually exclusive. Some authors state that design typologies are particularly useful for beginning researchers and interactive approaches are suited for experienced researchers Creswell and Plano Clark This makes an interactive approach desirable, also for beginning researchers.
We agree with Greene , who states that the value of the typological approach mainly lies in the different dimensions of mixed methods that result from its classifications. In this article, the primary dimensions include purpose, theoretical drive, timing, point of integration, typological vs. Unfortunately, all of these dimensions are not reflected in any single design typology reviewed here.
Language: English German. We explain the seven major design dimensions: purpose, theoretical drive, timing simultaneity and dependency , point of integration, typological versus interactive design approaches, planned versus emergent design, and design complexity. There also are multiple secondary dimensions that need to be considered during the design process. We explain ten secondary dimensions of design to be considered for each research study. We also provide two case studies showing how the mixed designs were constructed.
National Library of Australia. Search the catalogue for collection items held by the National Library of Australia. Creswell, John W. Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Creswell, Vicki L. Request this item to view in the Library's reading rooms using your library card.
This chapter deals with mixed-methods research, a group of approaches to conducting educational research studies that combines both quantitative and qualitative data. While that description may seem somewhat basic and straightforward, there are many important aspects to consider. The posting below looks at designing research studies that make use of both qualitative and quantitative data. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission.
The Importance of Mixed Methods Research Summary Activities Additional J. Creswell. Computer Science. 1, PDF. Alert. Research Feed.
List of ebooks and manuels about Designing and conducting mixed method research. Designing and conducting mixed methods studies. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. According to Creswell Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Designing and conducting mixed methods
Qualitative Research in Applied Linguistics pp Cite as. What are the main characteristics of quantitative research? Of qualitative research? In what ways do they differ from each other?
Shannon-Baker'Creswell and Plano Clark do excellent work in showing the evolution of mixedmethods. International Research Association. In , he joined the staff of family medicine at the University. It also provides a discussion of a diverse array of empirical studies from prominent and emerging mixed methods scholars, highlighting the strength and potential of this field for social and behavioral sciences.
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