File Name: respiratory diseases due to pollution and tobacco .zip
Metrics details. Chronic exposure to household indoor smoke and outdoor air pollution is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality. Children, women, the elderly and people with underlying chronic conditions are most affected.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Smoking of combustible tobacco products is the number one cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD worldwide. Although the proportion of smokers has decreased over the past 25 years, approximately 1.
NCBI Bookshelf. The respiratory system extends from the nose and upper airway to the alveolar surface of the lungs, where gas exchange occurs. Inhaled tobacco smoke moves from the mouth through the upper airway, ultimately reaching the alveoli. As the smoke moves more deeply into the respiratory tract, more soluble gases are adsorbed and particles are deposited in the airways and alveoli. The substantial doses of carcinogens and toxins delivered to these sites place smokers at risk for malignant and nonmalignant diseases involving all components of the respiratory tract including the mouth. Consider, for example, the lungs of a year-old person with a pack-year 1 smoking history starting at age 20 years.
Respiratory diseases , or lung diseases ,  are pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange difficult in air-breathing animals. They include conditions of the respiratory tract including the trachea , bronchi , bronchioles , alveoli , pleurae , pleural cavity , and the nerves and muscles of respiration. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting, such as the common cold , influenza , and pharyngitis to life-threatening diseases such as bacterial pneumonia , pulmonary embolism , tuberculosis , acute asthma , lung cancer ,  and severe acute respiratory syndromes , such as COVID The study of respiratory disease is known as pulmonology. A physician who specializes in respiratory disease is known as a pulmonologist, a chest medicine specialist, a respiratory medicine specialist, a respirologist or a thoracic medicine specialist.
Covid, pollution, smoking, inflammation. This infection can cause mild to very severe respiratory and systemic illness mainly related with a cytokine storm. The epidemiology of COVID is under continuous evolution, and studies are ongoing aiming at identifying the possible factors facilitating the diffusion of this infection. It is documented that air pollution and smoking are a leading cause of human morbidity and mortality globally, and can increase the risk of many diseases, including respiratory diseases. Overall, a linear relationship between exposure to atmospheric pollutants and diffusion of the Sars-Cov2 virus seems to exist. However, this correlation, cannot be regarded as a cause-effect relationship. The available data show that air pollution is responsible for inflammation and hyper-activation of innate immunity that are associated with the worst outcomes of covid but do not allow to conclude that atmospheric particulate is responsible for increased contagion.
Subscribe Table of contents. Tobacco in Australia: Facts and issues. Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria; The primary function of the human respiratory tract is gas exchange. Air is inhaled through the upper respiratory tract nasal cavity, pharynx and larynx into the lungs, which together with the trachea and bronchi make up the lower respiratory tract. Gas exchange occurs between the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries, where oxygen passes into the blood and carbon dioxide from the blood into the lungs for exhalation.
Pediatric Respiratory Diseases pp | Cite as. Diseases Caused by Pollutants and Tobacco Exposure Download chapter PDF.
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