File Name: application of genetics in agriculture and medicine .zip
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. That includes speculation about future genetic-engineering technologies. To provide a context for genetic engineering in overall crop improvement, the chapter first provides a description of plant-breeding methods and of genomics approaches that enable rapid advances in basic knowledge related to crop genetics and plant breeding. It then discusses commonly used genetic-engineering technologies, examining the breadth and depth of current use and current limitations.
Genetic engineering means the manipulation of organisms to make useful products and it has broad applications. New DNA may be inserted in the host genome by first isolating and copying the genetic material of interest, using molecular-cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence; or by synthesizing the DNA, and then inserting this construct into the host organism. Gene targeting is a different technique that uses homologous recombination to change an endogenous gene, and can be used to delete a gene, remove exons, add a gene, or introduce point mutations. Genetic engineering has applications in medicine, research, industry and agriculture and can be used on a wide range of plants, animals and microorganisms. Genetic engineering has produced a variety of drugs and hormones for medical use. For example, one of its earliest uses in pharmaceuticals was gene splicing to manufacture large amounts of insulin, made using cells of E. Interferon, which is used to eliminate certain viruses and kill cancer cells, also is a product of genetic engineering, as are tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase, which are used to dissolve blood clots.
Over the last 50 years, the field of genetic engineering has developed rapidly due to the greater understanding of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA as the chemical double helix code from which genes are made. Developing plant varieties expressing good agronomic characteristics is the ultimate goal of plant breeders. With conventional plant breeding, however, there is little or no guarantee of obtaining any particular gene combination from the millions of crosses generated. Undesirable genes can be transferred along with desirable genes; or, while one desirable gene is gained, another is lost because the genes of both parents are mixed together and re-assorted more or less randomly in the offspring. These problems limit the improvements that plant breeders can achieve.
Biotechnology is the use of biological techniques and engineered organisms to make products or plants and animals that have desired traits. Biotechnology : Brewing fermentation of beer was an early application of biotechnology. People have used biotechnology processes, such as selectively breeding animals and fermentation, for thousands of years. Late 19 th and early 20 th century discoveries of how microorganisms carry out commercially useful processes and how they cause disease led to the commercial production of vaccines and antibiotics. Improved methods for animal breeding have also resulted from these efforts.
The following points highlight the top four applications of genetic engineering. The applications are: 1. Application in Agriculture 2. Application to Medicine 3. Energy Production 4.
Genetics , study of heredity in general and of genes in particular. Genetics forms one of the central pillars of biology and overlaps with many other areas, such as agriculture, medicine , and biotechnology. Even roughly measured via diverse cognitive tests, intelligence shows a strong contribution from the environment. The genetic tests themselves are carried out using chemical, radiological, histopathologic, and electrodiagnostic procedures. Since the dawn of civilization, humankind has recognized the influence of heredity and applied its principles to the improvement of cultivated crops and domestic animals.
The applications of GE in medical science include production of vaccines, In agriculture, the applications of genetic engineering are most.
Over the last years, plant science research has provided important knowledge and technologies for advancing the sustainability of agriculture. In this Essay, I describe how basic research advances have been translated into crop improvement, explore some lessons learned, and discuss the potential for current and future contribution of plant genetic improvement technologies to continue to enhance food security and agricultural sustainability. PLoS Biol 12 6 : e This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Department of Energy.
There are many benefits to using genetic engineering.
This page has been archived and is no longer updated. It is a more precise technique, but not fundamentally different from genetic selection or crossbreeding in its result. The obvious question is ' Why genetically modify livestock?
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