File Name: anatomy and physiology of heart .zip
The impact of anatomy on medicine was first recognised by Andreas Vesalius during the 16th century  and from birth to death, the heart is the most talked about organ of the human body. The heart is one of the most efficient organs in the human body and heart disease is one of the commonest causes of morbidity and mortality in both developing and developed countries. Understanding the anatomy and pathophysiology is very important and challenging.
Like the bustling factory, the body must have a transportation system to carry its various cargos back and forth, and this is where the cardiovascular system steps in. The cardiovascular system can be compared to a muscular pump equipped with one-way valves and a system of large and small plumbing tubes within which the blood travels. The heart muscle has three layers and they are as follows:. The heart is equipped with four valves, which allow blood to flow in only one direction through the heart chambers. Although the heart chambers are bathed with blood almost continuously, the blood contained in the heart does not nourish the myocardium. Blood circulates inside the blood vessels, which form a closed transport system, the so-called vascular system. Except for the microscopic capillaries, the walls of the blood vessels have three coats or tunics.
Your heart does a lot of work to keep the body going. Each day, the average human heart beats about , times, pumping 2, gallons of blood through the body. In fact, the heart does more physical work than any other muscle over a lifetime. Located between the lungs in the middle of the chest, the heart pumps blood through the network of arteries and veins known as the cardiovascular system. Blood delivers oxygen and nutrients to every cell and removes the carbon dioxide and other waste products made by those cells. Blood is carried from the heart to the rest of the body through a complex network of arteries, arterioles and capillaries. Blood is returned to the heart through venules and veins.
The heart is at the centre of the circulatory system. This system consists of a network of blood vessels, such as arteries, veins, and capillaries. These blood vessels.
The current approach to understanding cardiac dynamics relies upon movements that adhere to the conventional topographical separation of cardiac muscle into the left ventricle, right ventricle, and septum.
Blood must always circulate to sustain life. It carries oxygen from the air we breathe to cells throughout the body. The pumping of the heart drives this blood flow through the arteries, capillaries, and veins. One set of blood vessels circulates blood through the lungs for gas exchange. The other vessels fuel the rest of the body. Read on to learn more about these crucial circulatory system functions.
The opinions expressed in this article are not necessarily those of the Editors of the European Heart Journal or of the European Society of Cardiology. Gianluca Pontone, Anatomy and physiology in ischaemic heart disease: a second honeymoon? Gaur et al. The marriage between coronary anatomy and physiology was sealed four decades ago with the evidence that progressive decreases in coronary lumen diameter resulted in reduced myocardial blood flow. Since that time, coronary artery revascularization has been based on visual assessment of the severity of coronary lumen diameter reduction during invasive coronary angiography ICA , assuming that this accurately reflects the physiological significance of the lesion.
Coronary arteries: The first two aortic branches, which supply blood to the heart tissues. Coronary sinus: An enlarged vein joining the cardiac veins; it empties into.
Когда он проволок ее по ковру, с ее ног соскочили туфли. Затем он одним движением швырнул ее на пол возле своего терминала. Сьюзан упала на спину, юбка ее задралась. Верхняя пуговица блузки расстегнулась, и в синеватом свете экрана было видно, как тяжело вздымается ее грудь. Она в ужасе смотрела, как он придавливает ее к полу, стараясь разобрать выражение его глаз. Похоже, в них угадывался страх.
Бринкерхофф хотел было уже взять следующий документ, но что-то задержало его внимание. В самом низу страницы отсутствовала последняя СЦР. В ней оказалось такое количество знаков, что ее пришлось перенести в следующую колонку. Увидев эту цифру, Бринкерхофф испытал настоящий шок. 999 999 999. Он ахнул. Миллиард долларов.
Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *