File Name: marine protected areas and ocean conservation .zip
The MPA will be in force for at least 35 years.
Marine protected areas MPAs form the cornerstone of marine conservation. Identifying which factors contribute to their success or failure is crucial considering the international conservation targets for and the limited funds generally available for marine conservation. We found that stakeholder engagement was considered to be the most important factor affecting MPA success, and equally, its absence, was the most important factor influencing failure.
The million people who live near the U. For example, rapidly warming waters in the Gulf of Maine have impeded efforts to rebuild the New England cod fishery. One of the most powerful and effective methods for protecting fisheries resources and ocean life is the marine protected area MPA —a clearly defined geographic space managed for long-term conservation.
To coordinate this effort and track progress toward national and global goals, countries have taken steps to set common standards. This issue brief provides an overview of the specific associated benefits that MPAs offer fisheries; discusses when the use of MPAs is and is not appropriate; and details ways to mitigate the economic challenges that MPAs can pose to commercial fishermen.
The brief also presents a new analysis of U. MPAs—which examines their geographic distribution, size, and level of protection—to make the case for an expansion of the MPA system in the United States.
Similar to land-based protected areas, MPAs exist along a spectrum of protection. The following four classifications—recently described by marine ecologist Kirsten Grorud-Colvert and her colleagues—delineate MPAs based on their level of biodiversity protection and extractive activities. While minimally protected MPAs do provide some conservation benefit to an area, it is relatively minimal, as the name implies.
Lightly protected MPAs prohibit some extractive activities—such as oil and gas drilling and seabed mining—but allow commercial fishing in some form.
The level of protection for this type of MPA is most similar to that of fisheries management areas, which may protect certain species and habitats but still allows for commercial fishing activity. For example, of the MPAs on the Pacific coast of Canada allow some commercial fishing within their borders but restrict particular types of fishing gear. Department of Defense from conducting bombing activities within the area.
Both highly protected and fully protected MPAs prohibit any industrial extractive activities within their boundaries, including oil and gas drilling, seabed mining, and commercial fishing. However, the five existing marine monuments all prohibit commercial extractive activities, which means they are classified as highly protected MPAs. Only 4. The designation of the Northeast Canyons and Seamounts Marine National Monument added some representation on the East Coast, but this area accounts for only slightly more than 1 percent of the entire U.
Atlantic Ocean territory. In the United States, there has been considerable debate over the usefulness of highly and fully protected MPAs for fisheries management. However, the science is clear: Even the best fisheries management cannot provide all the benefits of a highly or fully protected MPA.
MPAs conserve biodiversity, enhance resilience, enhance fisheries, and act as an insurance policy if other types of fisheries management do not work. They protect and restore endangered species and ecosystems.
They are sites for education and research. They can attract tourists and provide alternative livelihoods for communities. The reserves are capable of bringing back life and restoring key processes like water purification and carbon capture. In addition, they play a significant role in protecting and bringing back the large old fish that have always been the engines of reproduction and population replenishment. Animals that live longer are capable of producing more progeny.
Reserves can bring them back; conventional fisheries management will not. The more larval and adult offspring there are, the farther afield they will travel, promoting fisheries and building resilience over large areas. A healthy ocean with robust, economically viable fisheries requires all the available management tools. Both systems must be used in concert to achieve sustainable and economically viable ocean protections. By providing a refuge for targeted species, a highly to fully protected MPA gives animals inside its boundaries time to grow larger than their counterparts outside of the area.
For example, larger fish generally produce more offspring, and this surplus of fish will exit the MPA and help to stock fisheries. The beneficial effects of MPAs to fisheries can be best quantified by measuring biomass, numerical density, and organism size.
Biomass is the total mass of living biological organisms in a given area at a given time. Abundant evidence has shown that highly and fully protected MPAs promote large, rapid, and sustained buildup of biomass of commercially important species within their boundaries.
Numerical density refers to the number of individuals of a targeted species in a given area. As the number of individuals increases, more and more will exit the protected area and be available to fisheries. Another commonly used measure of density is the catch per unit effort CPUE , which is the total catch divided by the total amount of effort used to harvest the catch. For example, if CPUE is decreasing, fishermen are spending more time catching fewer fish, indicating that stocks are declining.
If CPUE is increasing, fishermen are catching more fish in less time, indicating a recovering or healthy stock. Lucia increased between 46 and 90 percent within five years of designation. Highly and fully protected MPAs increase average organism size by 28 percent. For example, in the commercially important Atlantic cod fishery, a single, large kilogram kg female produces more eggs than 28 small 2-kg females combined.
Moreover, the batch of eggs of the large kg female has 37 times more energy content, which increases the survival of the newly hatched fish. In another example, the New Zealand snapper fishery saw the benefit of 14 times more fish in fully protected MPAs than in fished areas, making egg production an estimated 18 times higher than outside of the protected area. For commercially important species, the benefits of a highly to fully protected MPA can mean the difference between a collapsed local fishery and a rapidly recovered one.
In Baja California, the local economy is primarily supported by fishing for pink abalone. However, when warming waters and reduced oxygen killed most of the species in , the larger, highly reproductive abalone that survived in the nearby fully protected MPA replenished the abalone stocks for the entire region. To sum up, highly to fully protected areas provide significant biological benefits, fostering an environment that allows for the growth of larger females that produce more offspring.
In turn, these offspring grow up into larger fish, some of which will move away from home and replenish the supply of fish in the surrounding waters. The fish in these replenished waters will attract fishermen who will catch them, thus reaping the benefits of a sustainable supply of larger fish. It is a beneficial circle that starts with a highly or fully protected MPA.
Highly to fully protected MPAs have been shown to foster greater biodiversity, which is helpful to overall ecosystem health and productivity. In a meta-analysis looking at the role of biodivcersity loss on ecosystem services, the data showed that post-designation, levels of biodiversity of fully protected MPAs increased by an average of 23 percent.
At the same time, areas adjacent to the MPAs were associated with large increases in fisheries productivity. Biodiversity has also been shown to enhance the ability of ecosystems to withstand a stress event and recover relatively quickly afterwards.
Research has found that as ocean waters warm and become more acidic, biodiversity can also provide a buffer to climate change. One study that synthesized global, fishery-independent data to test the importance of biodiversity to fish production showed that more diverse fish communities also had a greater resilience to temperature variations. Economic studies of the value of highly and fully protected MPAs show considerable returns on investment. One comprehensive economic study found that the total value of protecting these areas included benefits to neighboring fisheries, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, establishment of storm buffers, profitable eco-tourism, new MPA management jobs, and gains from new scientific discoveries.
This economic study also found that fisheries in medium- to high-decline gained the most from spillover from highly and fully protected MPAs. Another study that looked at the combined economic benefits of MPAs found that both tourism and neighboring fishery profits increased within as little as five years after the reserve was established. MPAs—even those that are highly to fully protected—are not a panacea for ocean health or even improved fisheries.
They cannot, for instance, protect against invasive species, pollution, or climate change other than through increased ecosystem resilience. In order to provide benefits to fisheries, successful MPAs across the globe share all or most of the following five key features:.
MPAs that meet only one or two of these criteria do not provide significant fisheries benefits. Strong fisheries management outside of the highly to fully protected MPA is also necessary to accrue the maximum possible benefits for fisheries and conservation. When all of these criteria are met and properly implemented, MPAs provide exceptional environmental and economic benefits and are one of the most effective overall methods of sustainable fisheries and marine conservation.
MPA supporters tend to focus on the potential long-term benefits to the environment and the economy. However, the short-term costs experienced most acutely by the fishing community are very real and can lead to income losses. The fishing community often views the long-term benefits of MPAs as high risk since there is no guarantee that the increased productivity associated with MPAs will provide a benefit within a time frame that allows them to remain in business.
Moreover, there is little that can be done to prevent some of the major negative effects that can, and often do, result from a temporary loss of income—for example, housing troubles and insurance issues.
One approach to alleviating short-term income loss is benefit-sharing between stakeholders. In this method, user fees from nonextractive groups such as tourists provide a source of stabilizing income to local fishermen during the first seasons of designation. Another crucial component of this model is that local fishermen were granted exclusive access rights to fish in the areas outside the MPA in exchange for their support in enforcing the fully protected MPA. Other risk-mitigating finance mechanisms can come in the form of short-term government subsidies, low-interest loans, or buyouts.
During the late s and early s, as local MPAs were becoming more prevalent, the various states and commonwealths in Australia implemented programs to alleviate lost income due to displaced fishing efforts. Some programs amended fisheries regulations to include compensation programs; others offered voluntary fishing license buyouts; and a few developed complicated structural adjustment programs, which were a combination of financial assistance packages that targeted short-term losses and license buyouts with longer-term effects.
Fishermen are not the only stakeholders in these areas. Seafood processors, equipment suppliers, and related industries within the community may also experience negative outcomes from a designation. As with fishery disaster designation, potential compensation programs must therefore consider how large a social safety net should be cast. The opportunity costs of not designating MPAs should also be considered—for example, how much income the tourism industry is forgoing or the impact that the closure could have on the local indigenous community.
The designation process should therefore include all stakeholders and determine the most fair methods for meeting their needs and addressing their concerns. Including local communities and fishermen in the designation process is key.
As discussed above, the fishing community was part of the success of Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park in the Philippines. After a few years of faltering success post-designation, stakeholder workshops and listening sessions were able to move past grievances and begin to lay the groundwork for eventual buy-in. In the case of the highly protected Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, designation was done with significant support from indigenous and local communities as well as the government.
Although it was not unanimous, many small-boat fishermen in the islands were supportive of this level of protection. However, local process has its limits. The designation of the Northeast Canyons and Seamounts Marine National Monument was a huge step forward for protection in the New England region, which up until that point, had no highly to fully protected areas. Even with strong scientific evidence for the benefits for MPAs and integrated consultation, there will likely always be those who cannot be persuaded to support MPA designations.
In the Pacific, WESPAC has argued that vessels have lost tens of millions of dollars as a result of these protected areas, but since the tuna fleets have consistently maximized their fishing capacity and caught all the fish they are allowed to catch each year, the data do not support these claims.
MPA system is dominated by a few very large, very remote monuments. Only five of the eight major regions have any areas at all that are highly to fully protected. The combined area of highly to fully protected MPAs outside of the West Pacific accounts for less than 1 percent of the total.
Moreover, 84 percent of that tiny percentage is located in the Northeast Canyons and Seamounts Marine National Monument. Overall, U.
This variation includes different limitations on development, fishing practices, fishing seasons and catch limits, moorings and bans on removing or disrupting marine life. In some situations such as with the Phoenix Islands Protected Area , MPAs also provide revenue for countries, potentially equal to the income that they would have if they were to grant companies permissions to fish. The value of MPA to mobile species is unknown . On 28 October in Hobart , Australia , the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources agreed to establish the first Antarctic and largest marine protected area in the world encompassing 1. This definition is intended to make it more difficult to claim MPA status for regions where exploitation of marine resources occurs. If there is no defined long-term goal for conservation and ecological recovery and extraction of marine resources occurs, a region is not a marine protected area. IUCN offered seven categories of protected area , based on management objectives and four broad governance types.
The million people who live near the U. For example, rapidly warming waters in the Gulf of Maine have impeded efforts to rebuild the New England cod fishery. One of the most powerful and effective methods for protecting fisheries resources and ocean life is the marine protected area MPA —a clearly defined geographic space managed for long-term conservation. To coordinate this effort and track progress toward national and global goals, countries have taken steps to set common standards. This issue brief provides an overview of the specific associated benefits that MPAs offer fisheries; discusses when the use of MPAs is and is not appropriate; and details ways to mitigate the economic challenges that MPAs can pose to commercial fishermen. The brief also presents a new analysis of U.
people for both conservation and food security. MPAs and Fisheries Management. Fishing has fundamentally changed ocean food webs and ecosystems.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Terrestrial reserves and protected areas have a long history compared to marine protected areas MPAs and many lessons can be learned for application to MPAs.
Despite progressive policies and continued advances in ocean management, numerous shifts associated with global changes have been observed in marine ecosystems in recent years, including warming, ocean acidification, and deoxygenation. As global change accelerates, science is needed to inform evidence-based management strategies for continued ecosystem services. Resilience management, in which actions are undertaken to promote the resistance and recovery responses of populations and ecosystems to disturbance, has been suggested as a possible strategy.
California's coast and ocean are among our most treasured resources. The productivity, wildness, and beauty found here is central to California's identity, heritage, and economy. The need to safeguard the long-term health of California's marine life was recognized by the California Legislature in with the passage of the Marine Life Protection Act. MPAs protect the diversity and abundance of marine life, the habitats they depend on, and the integrity of marine ecosystems.
Marine Protected Areas MPAs — areas of the ocean set aside for long-term conservation aims — are the only mainstream conservation-focussed, area-based measure to increase the quality and extent of ocean protection. MPAs and their network offer nature-based solution to support global efforts towards climate change adaptation and mitigation. However only just over 1. Most existing MPAs do not have enough human and financial resources to properly implement conservation and management measures. The high seas, covering over half the Earth, still lack a framework through which MPAs can be established. Lack of strictly and permanently protected MPAs limits our ability to support climate change adaptation and mitigation. However, to reduce the overall climate change impacts on oceans, such as ocean warming, substantial cuts in greenhouse gas emissions are still urgently needed.
Threats to Oceans and Coastal Areas. Marine Protected Area Typologies. Marine Protected Area Case Studies. Marine Protected Area Site Selection. Appendix: Principles for the Conservation of Living Resources. Literature Cited. This book reviews the need for marine conservation, summarizes general measures for ocean and coastal conservation, and explains the rationale for establishing marine protected areas.
- Туда и обратно. Он был настолько погружен в свои мысли, что не заметил человека в очках в тонкой металлической оправе, который следил за ним с другой стороны улицы. ГЛАВА 18 Стоя у громадного окна во всю стену своего кабинета в токийском небоскребе, Нуматака с наслаждением дымил сигарой и улыбался. Он не мог поверить в свою необыкновенную удачу. Он снова говорил с этим американцем, и если все прошло, как было задумано, то Танкадо сейчас уже нет в живых, а ключ, который он носил с собой, изъят.
successful marine protected area (MPA) networks. The U.S. has Conservation of Nature (IUCN)) to protect important places in our ocean, estuaries, coastal and Deep Sea Habitats. reddingvwclub.org
Чатрукьян продолжал колотить по стеклу. - Ничего не поделаешь, - вздохнул Стратмор. - Поддержи. Коммандер глубоко вздохнул и подошел к раздвижной стеклянной двери. Кнопка на полу привела ее в движение, и дверь, издав шипящий звук, отъехала в сторону. Чатрукьян ввалился в комнату. - Коммандер… сэр, я… извините за беспокойство, но монитор… я запустил антивирус и… - Фил, Фил, - нехарактерным для него ласковым тоном сказал Стратмор.
Я сказал тебе - подними. Одуревшие от наркотиков панки за соседними столиками начали поворачивать головы в их сторону, привлеченные перепалкой. - Не советую тебе так себя вести, парень, - тихо сказал Беккер. - Я тебя предупредил! - кипятился панк. - Это мой столик.
Бринкерхофф даже подпрыгнул. - Вирус. Кто тебе сказал про вирус. - Это единственное разумное объяснение, - сказала. - Джабба уверяет, что вирус - единственное, что могло привести к столь долгой работе ТРАНСТЕКСТА. - Подожди минутку! - махнул он рукой, словно прося ее остановиться.
Глаза ее увлажнились. - О, Дэвид… у меня нет слов. - Скажи. Она отвернулась.
Очевидно, волнение отняло у него все силы. Его лицо залила мертвенная бледность. Беккер предпринял последнюю попытку: - Мистер Клушар, я хотел бы получить показания этого немца и его спутницы.
Сьюзан это позабавило. Стратмор был блестящими программистом-криптографом, но его диапазон был ограничен работой с алгоритмами и тонкости этой не столь уж изощренной и устаревшей технологии программирования часто от него ускользали. К тому же Сьюзан написала свой маячок на новом гибридном языке, именуемом LIMBO, поэтому не приходилось удивляться, что Стратмор с ним не справился. - Я возьму это на себя, - улыбнулась она, вставая.
Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *