File Name: cocoa and coffee fermentations .zip
Coffee is one of the most important and widely used commercial crops in the world. After ripe coffee cherries are harvested, coffee must pass through several steps to become green raw coffee beans.
The first stage of chocolate production consists of a natural, seven-day microbial fermentation of the pectinaceous pulp surrounding beans of the tree Theobroma cacao. There is a microbial succession of a wide range of yeasts, lactic-acid, and acetic-acid bacteria during which high temperatures of up to 50 degrees C and microbial products, such as ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid, kill the beans and cause production of flavor precursors. Over-fermentation leads to a rise in bacilli and filamentous fungi that can cause off-flavors. The physiological roles of the predominant micro-organisms are now reasonably well understood and the crucial importance of a well-ordered microbial succession in cocoa aroma has been established. It has been possible to use a synthetic microbial cocktail inoculum of just 5 species, including members of the 3 principal groups, to mimic the natural fermentation process and yield good quality chocolate. Reduction of the amount of pectin by physical or mechanical means can also lead to an improved fermentation in reduced time and the juice can be used as a high-value byproduct.
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Cocoa and coffee are two beverages derived from beans which are processed by fermentation, drying, roasting and grinding. This is in contrast to black tea which is derived from leaves which undergo withering, rolling, an enzymatic oxidative process, and drying.
This item is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Show full item record Recommend this item. Cocoa and coffee fermentations. Boca Raton: CRC, Fermented Foods and Beverages.
The growth of filamentous fungi during the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation leads to inferior cocoa bean quality and poses a health risk for consumers due to the potential accumulation of mycotoxins. We recently developed anti-fungal cultures with the capacity to inhibit the growth of mycotoxigenic filamentous fungi on cocoa beans. However, it is not clear how these anti-fungal cultures affect the fermentation process and cocoa bean quality. The comparison of inoculated and spontaneous fermentation processes revealed that the co-cultures only marginally affected the fermentation process and cocoa bean quality. Microorganisms reached maximal levels of 6.
В чем дело? - спросил Джабба. Все прильнули к экрану и сокрушенно ахнули. Крошечная сноска гласила: Предел ошибки составляет 12. Разные лаборатории приводят разные цифры.
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