File Name: doha declaration on trips and public health .zip
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License, which permits for noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any digital medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not altered in any way. Critics argue that the TRIPS agreement provides unnecessarily strong protection of intellectual property rights which serves to prevent the ill in developing nations from having access to affordable essential medications. The first recommendation that this paper makes is to provide two sets of intellectual property protection, one that applies to essential medications such as AIDS drugs and certain antibiotics and another that applies to drugs that treat non-life threatening conditions. The second recommendation builds upon the first recommendation: if two sets of intellectual property protection legislation are enacted, patents on essential medications should be restricted to patents on processes rather than the product itself. The third recommendation seeks to amend the language of the TRIPS agreement to make it obligatory for member nations to implement provisions on compulsory licensing within their domestic legislation. At the junction of the medical sciences, public health, economics, political science, business and law lies a fascinating crisis facing much of the developing areas of the world.
Metrics details. Despite these important clarifications, the actual implementation of these measures to improve access to medicines remains uncertain. There are also concerns that so-called TRIPS-plus measures within many regional and bilateral trade agreements are further undermining the capacity of the poor to access affordable medicines. The paper reviews policy debates among governments, nongovernmental organisations and international organisations from , and notably since , surrounding access to medicines and trade agreements. The provisions for protecting public health provided by the Doha Declaration and Paragraph 6 Decision are reviewed in terms of challenges for implementation, along with measures to protect intellectual property rights IPRs under selected regional and bilateral trade agreements. While provisions, in principle, were affirmed for member states under the TRIPS agreement to protect public health, numerous challenges remain.
Doha, 9 - 14 November DECLARATION ON THE TRIPS AGREEMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH. 1. We recognize the gravity of the public health problems.
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TRIPS agreement and access to drugs in developing countries. The TRIPS Agreement brought about very important changes in international standards relating to intellectual property rights. Because of its far-reaching implications it is one of the most controversial components of the WTO system. In this article, the author states that as adopted, the implementation of paragraph 6 is unlikely to put strong pressure on patent owners to lower their prices or negotiate voluntary licenses. The author highlights that controversies are likely to continue, especially as developed countries seek TRIPS-plus protection via interpretation or negotiation of bilateral and regional agreements, and as patents over trivial developments are granted and used to block or delay generic competition. Because of its far-reaching implications, particularly with respect to developing countries, the agreement has been one of the most controversial components of the WTO System.
When the Uruguay Rounds concluded in , many countries signed on to the trade agreements creating the World Trade Organization WTO in hopes of benefiting from a system of trade rules "dedicated to open, fair and undistorted competition" 1. Developing countries, major development agencies and civil society raised concerns over whether TRIPS might limit access to affordable, essential medicines. Oliveira et al. Have they, though, placed at risk the potential role of generic competition or weakened public sector negotiating leverage? To highlight an area of growing concern, the United States has prioritized the creation or expansion of "exclusive rights" over pharmaceutical test data in FTA negotiations 3. Under Article
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