File Name: materials processing and manufacturing science .zip
The journal topics include state-of-the-art improvements in materials properties through alloying and the processes of casting, forming, heat treating, surface modification, coating, fabrication, and various new and emerging methods and technologies.
Materials processing , the series of operations that transforms industrial materials from a raw-material state into finished parts or products. Materials processing by hand is as old as civilization; mechanization began with the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, and in the early 19th century the basic machines for forming, shaping, and cutting were developed, principally in England. Since then, materials-processing methods, techniques, and machinery have grown in variety and number. The cycle of manufacturing processes that converts materials into parts and products starts immediately after the raw materials are either extracted from minerals or produced from basic chemicals or natural substances.
Manufacturing engineering is a branch of professional engineering that shares many common concepts and ideas with other fields of engineering such as mechanical, chemical, electrical, and industrial engineering. Manufacturing engineering requires the ability to plan the practices of manufacturing; to research and to develop tools, processes, machines and equipment; and to integrate the facilities and systems for producing quality products with the optimum expenditure of capital.
Manufacturing Engineering is based on core industrial engineering and mechanical engineering skills, adding important elements from mechatronics, commerce, economics and business management. This field also deals with the integration of different facilities and systems for producing quality products with optimal expenditure by applying the principles of physics and the results of manufacturing systems studies, such as the following:.
Manufacturing engineers develop and create physical artifacts, production processes, and technology. It is a very broad area which includes the design and development of products. Manufacturing engineers' success or failure directly impacts the advancement of technology and the spread of innovation. This field of manufacturing engineering emerged from tool and die discipline in the early 20th century.
It expanded greatly from the s when industrialized countries introduced factories with:. Numerical control machine tools and automated systems of production. Advanced statistical methods of quality control : These factories were pioneered by the American electrical engineer William Edwards Deming , who was initially ignored by his home country. The same methods of quality control later turned Japanese factories into world leaders in cost-effectiveness and production quality. Industrial robots on the factory floor, introduced in the late s: These computer-controlled welding arms and grippers could perform simple tasks such as attaching a car door quickly and flawlessly 24 hours a day.
This cut costs and improved production speed. The history of manufacturing engineering can be traced to factories in the mid 19th century USA and 18th century UK. Although large home production sites and workshops were established in China, ancient Rome and the Middle East, the Venice Arsenal provides one of the first examples of a factory in the modern sense of the word.
Founded in in the Republic of Venice several hundred years before the Industrial Revolution , this factory mass-produced ships on assembly lines using manufactured parts. The Venice Arsenal apparently produced nearly one ship every day and, at its height, employed 16, people.
Many historians regard Matthew Boulton's Soho Manufactory established in in Birmingham as the first modern factory. The Cromford Mill was purpose-built to accommodate the equipment it held and to take the material through the various manufacturing processes. The Potosi factory took advantage of the abundant silver that was mined nearby and processed silver ingot slugs into coins. British colonies in the 19th century built factories simply as buildings where a large number of workers gathered to perform hand labor, usually in textile production.
This proved more efficient for the administration and distribution of materials to individual workers than earlier methods of manufacturing, such as cottage industries or the putting-out system. Cotton mills used inventions such as the steam engine and the power loom to pioneer the industrial factories of the 19th century, where precision machine tools and replaceable parts allowed greater efficiency and less waste.
This experience formed the basis for the later studies of manufacturing engineering. Between and , non-mechanized factories supplanted traditional artisan shops as the predominant form of manufacturing institution.
Henry Ford further revolutionized the factory concept and thus manufacturing engineering in the early 20th century with the innovation of mass production. Highly specialized workers situated alongside a series of rolling ramps would build up a product such as in Ford's case an automobile. This concept dramatically decreased production costs for virtually all manufactured goods and brought about the age of consumerism.
Modern manufacturing engineering studies include all intermediate processes required for the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term "fabrication" for these processes. Automation is used in different processes of manufacturing such as machining and welding.
Automated manufacturing refers to the application of automation to produce goods in a factory. The main advantages of automated manufacturing for the manufacturing process are realized with effective implementation of automation and include: higher consistency and quality, reduction of lead times, simplification of production, reduced handling, improved work flow, and improved worker morale.
Robotics is the application of mechatronics and automation to create robots, which are often used in manufacturing to perform tasks that are dangerous, unpleasant, or repetitive. These robots may be of any shape and size, but all are preprogrammed and interact physically with the world. To create a robot, an engineer typically employs kinematics to determine the robot's range of motion and mechanics to determine the stresses within the robot.
Robots are used extensively in manufacturing engineering. Robots allow businesses to save money on labor, perform tasks that are either too dangerous or too precise for humans to perform economically, and to ensure better quality.
Many companies employ assembly lines of robots, and some factories are so robotized that they can run by themselves. Outside the factory, robots have been employed in bomb disposal, space exploration, and many other fields.
Robots are also sold for various residential applications. Manufacturing engineers possess an associate's or bachelor's degree in engineering with a major in manufacturing engineering. The length of study for such a degree is usually two to five years followed by five more years of professional practice to qualify as a professional engineer.
Working as a manufacturing engineering technologist involves a more applications-oriented qualification path. For manufacturing technologists the required degrees are Associate or Bachelor of Technology [B. Doctoral [PhD] or [DEng] level courses in manufacturing are also available depending on the university. The undergraduate degree curriculum generally includes courses in physics, mathematics, computer science, project management, and specific topics in mechanical and manufacturing engineering.
Initially such topics cover most, if not all, of the subdisciplines of manufacturing engineering. Students then choose to specialize in one or more subdisciplines towards the end of their degree work. This syllabus is closely related to Industrial Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, but it differs by placing more emphasis on Manufacturing Science or Production Science. It includes the following areas:. A degree in Manufacturing Engineering typically differs from Mechanical Engineering in only a few specialized classes.
Mechanical Engineering degrees focus more on the product design process and on complex products which requires more mathematical expertise.
In some countries, "professional engineer" is the term for registered or licensed engineers who are permitted to offer their professional services directly to the public. In order to qualify for this license, a candidate needs a bachelor's degree from an ABET recognized university in the USA, a passing score on a state examination, and four years of work experience usually gained via a structured internship.
In the USA, more recent graduates have the option of dividing this licensure process into two segments. The Fundamentals of Engineering FE exam is often taken immediately after graduation and the Principles and Practice of Engineering exam is taken after four years of working in a chosen engineering field. The SME administers qualifications specifically for the manufacturing industry.
These are not degree level qualifications and are not recognized at the professional engineering level. The following discussion deals with qualifications in the USA only.
Qualified candidates for the Certified Manufacturing Technologist Certificate CMfgT must pass a three-hour, question multiple-choice exam. The exam covers math, manufacturing processes, manufacturing management, automation, and related subjects. Additionally, a candidate must have at least four years of combined education and manufacturing-related work experience. Candidates qualifying for a Certified Manufacturing Engineer credential must pass a four-hour, question multiple-choice exam which covers more in-depth topics than does the CMfgT exam.
CMfgE candidates must also have eight years of combined education and manufacturing-related work experience, with a minimum of four years of work experience. The Certified Engineering Manager Certificate is also designed for engineers with eight years of combined education and manufacturing experience.
The test is four hours long and has multiple-choice questions. The CEM certification exam covers business processes, teamwork, responsibility, and other management-related categories. Many manufacturing companies, especially those in industrialized nations, have begun to incorporate computer-aided engineering CAE programs into their existing design and analysis processes, including 2D and 3D solid modeling computer-aided design CAD.
This method has many benefits, including easier and more exhaustive visualization of products, the ability to create virtual assemblies of parts, and ease of use in designing mating interfaces and tolerances. Other CAE programs commonly used by product manufacturers include product life cycle management PLM tools and analysis tools used to perform complex simulations. Analysis tools may be used to predict product response to expected loads, including fatigue life and manufacturability.
Using CAE programs, a mechanical design team can quickly and cheaply iterate the design process to develop a product that better meets cost, performance, and other constraints. No physical prototype need be created until the design nears completion, allowing hundreds or thousands of designs to be evaluated, instead of relatively few. In addition, CAE analysis programs can model complicated physical phenomena which cannot be solved by hand, such as viscoelasticity, complex contact between mating parts, or non-Newtonian flows.
Just as manufacturing engineering is linked with other disciplines, such as mechatronics, multidisciplinary design optimization MDO is also being used with other CAE programs to automate and improve the iterative design process. MDO tools wrap around existing CAE processes, allowing product evaluation to continue even after the analyst goes home for the day. They also utilize sophisticated optimization algorithms to more intelligently explore possible designs, often finding better, innovative solutions to difficult multidisciplinary design problems.
Manufacturing engineering is an extremely important discipline worldwide. It goes by different names in different countries. Mechanics, in the most general sense, is the study of forces and their effects on matter.
Typically, engineering mechanics is used to analyze and predict the acceleration and deformation both elastic and plastic of objects under known forces also called loads or stresses. Subdisciplines of mechanics include:. If the engineering project were to design a vehicle, statics might be employed to design the frame of the vehicle in order to evaluate where the stresses will be most intense.
Dynamics might be used when designing the car's engine to evaluate the forces in the pistons and cams as the engine cycles. Mechanics of materials might be used to choose appropriate materials for the manufacture of the frame and engine. Fluid mechanics might be used to design a ventilation system for the vehicle or to design the intake system for the engine. Kinematics is the study of the motion of bodies objects and systems groups of objects , while ignoring the forces that cause the motion.
The movement of a crane and the oscillations of a piston in an engine are both simple kinematic systems. The crane is a type of open kinematic chain, while the piston is part of a closed four-bar linkage. Engineers typically use kinematics in the design and analysis of mechanisms. Kinematics can be used to find the possible range of motion for a given mechanism, or, working in reverse, can be used to design a mechanism that has a desired range of motion.
Drafting or technical drawing is the means by which manufacturers create instructions for manufacturing parts. A technical drawing can be a computer model or hand-drawn schematic showing all the dimensions necessary to manufacture a part, as well as assembly notes, a list of required materials, and other pertinent information.
S engineer or skilled worker who creates technical drawings may be referred to as a drafter or draftsman. Drafting has historically been a two-dimensional process, but computer-aided design CAD programs now allow the designer to create in three dimensions. Optionally, an engineer may also manually manufacture a part using the technical drawings, but this is becoming an increasing rarity with the advent of computer numerically controlled CNC manufacturing.
Engineers primarily manufacture parts manually in the areas of applied spray coatings, finishes, and other processes that cannot economically or practically be done by a machine.
Manufacturing is the production of goods through the use of labor , machines , tools , and chemical or biological processing or formulation. It is the essence of secondary sector of the economy. Such goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other more complex products such as aircraft , household appliances , furniture , sports equipment or automobiles , or distributed via the tertiary industry to end users and consumers usually through wholesalers , who in turn sell to retailers , who then sell them to individual customers. Manufacturing engineering , or the manufacturing process , are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product. The manufacturing process begins with the product design , and materials specification from which the product is made.
Manufacturing engineering is a branch of professional engineering that shares many common concepts and ideas with other fields of engineering such as mechanical, chemical, electrical, and industrial engineering. Manufacturing engineering requires the ability to plan the practices of manufacturing; to research and to develop tools, processes, machines and equipment; and to integrate the facilities and systems for producing quality products with the optimum expenditure of capital. Manufacturing Engineering is based on core industrial engineering and mechanical engineering skills, adding important elements from mechatronics, commerce, economics and business management. This field also deals with the integration of different facilities and systems for producing quality products with optimal expenditure by applying the principles of physics and the results of manufacturing systems studies, such as the following:. Manufacturing engineers develop and create physical artifacts, production processes, and technology. It is a very broad area which includes the design and development of products.
Special Book Collections. Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regularly and special discounts for subscribers! Metal Additive Manufacturing. This collection of scientific papers describes a wide range of engineering approaches and solutions in the area of additive manufacturing technologies for metallic materials. Spallation Materials Technology. This book describes the spallation material technology for the production of high-intensity neutron sources and the fundamental study of nuclear transmutation devices for long-lived fission products. The techniques relate to material performance evaluation in order to realize neutron production by spallation process due to high-energy protons; other quantum beams application to simulate the particular process and products under high energy proton bombardment to the materials, and the effect of nuclear heat generation brought by the proton beam energy deposit.
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The first chapter is about the manufacturing properties of various materials. In the subsequent chapters, the authors lucidly explain key manufacturing processes such as machining, joining, forming, and casting, including a chapter on unconventional machining processes. The final chapter talks about the modern manufacturing technologies like Generative Manufacturing, Self-Assembly, and Liga Process.
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