File Name: library as a social institution and normative principles .zip
He formally established the academic discipline of sociology and—with Max Weber —is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science. From his lifetime, much of Durkheim's work would be concerned with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in modernity , an era in which traditional social and religious ties are no longer assumed, and in which new social institutions have come into being. Durkheim would also be deeply preoccupied with the acceptance of sociology as a legitimate science.
Social norms are regarded as collective representations of acceptable group conduct as well as individual perceptions of particular group conduct. In the field of social psychology, the roles of norms are emphasized—which can guide behavior in a certain situation or environment as "mental representations of appropriate behavior". A message can target the former dimension by describing high levels of voter turnout in order to encourage more turnout. Norms also can be changed contingent on the observed behavior of others how much behavior is exhibited.
He formally established the academic discipline of sociology and—with Max Weber —is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science. From his lifetime, much of Durkheim's work would be concerned with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in modernity , an era in which traditional social and religious ties are no longer assumed, and in which new social institutions have come into being.
Durkheim would also be deeply preoccupied with the acceptance of sociology as a legitimate science. He refined the positivism originally set forth by Auguste Comte , promoting what could be considered as a form of epistemological realism , as well as the use of the hypothetico-deductive model in social science.
For Durkheim, sociology was the science of institutions , understanding the term in its broader meaning as the "beliefs and modes of behaviour instituted by the collectivity,"  with its aim being to discover structural social facts. As such, Durkheim was a major proponent of structural functionalism , a foundational perspective in both sociology and anthropology.
In his view, social science should be purely holistic , [i] in that sociology should study phenomena attributed to society at large, rather than being limited to the specific actions of individuals. He remained a dominant force in French intellectual life until his death in , presenting numerous lectures and published works on a variety of topics, including the sociology of knowledge , morality , social stratification , religion , law , education , and deviance.
Durkheimian terms such as " collective consciousness " have since entered the popular lexicon. As his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather had all been rabbis ,  : 1 young Durkheim began his education in a rabbinical school. However, at an early age, he switched schools, deciding not to follow in his family's footsteps. Despite this fact, Durkheim did not sever ties with his family or with the Jewish community.
Marcel Mauss , a notable social anthropologist of the prewar era, for instance, was his nephew. Durkheim found humanistic studies uninteresting, turning his attention from psychology and philosophy to ethics and, eventually, sociology. The opportunity for Durkheim to receive a major academic appointment in Paris was inhibited by his approach to society. From to he taught philosophy at several provincial schools. Durkheim's period in Germany resulted in the publication of numerous articles on German social science and philosophy; Durkheim was particularly impressed by the work of Wilhelm Wundt.
However, his controversial beliefs that religion and morality could be explained in terms purely of social interaction earned him many critics. Also in , Durkheim married Louise Dreyfus. The s were a period of remarkable creative output for Durkheim. This in turn resulted in a backlash against the new secular and republican rule, as many people considered a vigorously nationalistic approach necessary to rejuvenate France's fading power.
Durkheim, a Jew and a staunch supporter of the Third Republic with a sympathy towards socialism, was thus in the political minority, a situation that galvanized him politically. The Dreyfus affair of only strengthened his activist stance. In , he published The Rules of Sociological Method ,  a manifesto stating what sociology is and how it ought to be done, and founded the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux.
In , he published Suicide , a case study that provided an example of what a sociological monograph might look like.
Durkheim was one of the pioneers of the use of quantitative methods in criminology , which he used in his study of suicide. By , Durkheim had finally achieved his goal of attaining a prominent position in Paris when he became the chair of education at the Sorbonne.
Durkheim had aimed for the position earlier, but the Parisian faculty took longer to accept what some called "sociological imperialism" and admit social science to their curriculum. Durkheim had much influence over the new generation of teachers; around that time he also served as an advisor to the Ministry of Education. The outbreak of World War I was to have a tragic effect on Durkheim's life. His leftism was always patriotic rather than internationalist , in that he sought a secular, rational form of French life.
However, the onset of the war, and the inevitable nationalist propaganda that followed, made it difficult to sustain this already nuanced position. While Durkheim actively worked to support his country in the war, his reluctance to give in to simplistic nationalist fervor combined with his Jewish background made him a natural target of the now-ascendant French Right.
Even more seriously, the generations of students that Durkheim had trained were now being drafted to serve in the army, many of them perishing in the trenches. In The Rules of Sociological Method , Durkheim expressed his will to establish a method that would guarantee sociology's truly scientific character.
One of the questions raised concerns the objectivity of the sociologist: how may one study an object that, from the very beginning, conditions and relates to the observer? According to Durkheim, observation must be as impartial and impersonal as possible, even though a "perfectly objective observation" in this sense may never be attained. A social fact must always be studied according to its relation with other social facts, never according to the individual who studies it.
Sociology should therefore privilege comparison rather than the study of singular independent facts. Durkheim sought to create one of the first rigorous scientific approaches to social phenomena. Along with Herbert Spencer , he was one of the first people to explain the existence and quality of different parts of a society by reference to what function they served in maintaining the quotidian i.
He also agreed with Spencer's organic analogy , comparing society to a living organism. A fundamental influence on Durkheim's thought was the sociological positivism of Auguste Comte , who effectively sought to extend and apply the scientific method found in the natural sciences to the social sciences.
There were many points on which Durkheim agreed with the positivist thesis:. A second influence on Durkheim's view of society beyond Comte's positivism was the epistemological outlook called social realism. Although he never explicitly exposed it, Durkheim adopted a realist perspective in order to demonstrate the existence of social realities outside the individual and to show that these realities existed in the form of the objective relations of society.
This view opposes other predominant philosophical perspectives such as empiricism and positivism. Empiricists, like David Hume , had argued that all realities in the outside world are products of human sense perception, thus all realities are merely perceived: they do not exist independently of our perceptions, and have no causal power in themselves.
Going beyond this, Durkheim claimed that sociology would not only discover "apparent" laws, but would be able to discover the inherent nature of society. Scholars also debate the exact influence of Jewish thought on Durkheim's work. The answer remains uncertain; some scholars have argued that Durkheim's thought is a form of secularized Jewish thought , [iv]  while others argue that proving the existence of a direct influence of Jewish thought on Durkheim's achievements is difficult or impossible.
Throughout his career, Durkheim was concerned primarily with three goals. First, to establish sociology as a new academic discipline. To that end he wrote much about the effect of laws, religion, education and similar forces on society and social integration. For if society lacks the unity that derives from the fact that the relationships between its parts are exactly regulated, that unity resulting from the harmonious articulation of its various functions assured by effective discipline and if, in addition, society lacks the unity based upon the commitment of men's wills to a common objective, then it is no more than a pile of sand that the least jolt or the slightest puff will suffice to scatter.
Durkheim authored some of the most programmatic statements on what sociology is and how it should be practiced. To give sociology a place in the academic world and to ensure that it is a legitimate science, it must have an object that is clear and distinct from philosophy or psychology, and its own methodology. A fundamental aim of sociology is to discover structural " social facts ". A social fact is every way of acting, fixed or not, capable of exercising on the individual an external constraint; or again, every way of acting which is general throughout a given society, while at the same time existing in its own right independent of its individual manifestations.
Durkheim's work revolved around the study of social facts, a term he coined to describe phenomena that have an existence in and of themselves, are not bound to the actions of individuals, but have a coercive influence upon them. Such facts are endowed with a power of coercion, by reason of which they may control individual behaviors. For example, a flag is a physical social fact that is often ingrained with various immaterial social facts e. Many social facts, however, have no material form.
Suicide, like other immaterial social facts, exists independently of the will of an individual, cannot be eliminated, and is as influential—coercive—as physical laws like gravity. Regarding the society itself, like social institutions in general, Durkheim saw it as a set of social facts. Durkheim assumes that humans are inherently egoistic , while " collective consciousness " i.
The totality of beliefs and sentiments common to the average members of a society forms a determinate system with a life of its own. It can be termed the collective or common consciousness. In particular, the emotional part of the collective consciousness overrides our egoism : as we are emotionally bound to culture , we act socially because we recognize it is the responsible, moral way to act. Groups, when interacting, create their own culture and attach powerful emotions to it, thus making culture another key social fact.
To that, Durkheim answered that any apparent cultural diversity is overridden by a larger, common, and more generalized cultural system, and the law. In a socio-evolutionary approach, Durkheim described the evolution of societies from mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity one rising from mutual need. One of the main features of the modern, organic society is the importance, sacredness even, given to the concept—social fact—of the individual. Thus very far from there being the antagonism between the individual and society which is often claimed, moral individualism, the cult of the individual, is in fact the product of society itself.
It is society that instituted it and made of man the god whose servant it is. Durkheim saw the population density and growth as key factors in the evolution of the societies and advent of modernity. In another example of evolution of culture, Durkheim pointed to fashion , although in this case he noted a more cyclical phenomenon. As the society, Durkheim noted there are several possible pathologies that could lead to a breakdown of social integration and disintegration of the society: the two most important ones are anomie and forced division of labour ; lesser ones include the lack of coordination and suicide.
Durkheim's views on crime were a departure from conventional notions. He believed that crime is "bound up with the fundamental conditions of all social life " and serves a social function. The authority which the moral conscience enjoys must not be excessive; otherwise, no-one would dare to criticize it, and it would too easily congeal into an immutable form. To make progress, individual originality must be able to express itself…[even] the originality of the criminal…shall also be possible.
Durkheim thought deviance to be an essential component of a functional society. Durkheim's thoughts on deviance contributed to Robert Merton's Strain Theory. In Suicide , Durkheim explores the differing suicide rates among Protestants and Catholics, arguing that stronger social control among Catholics results in lower suicide rates. According to Durkheim, Catholic society has normal levels of integration while Protestant society has low levels.
Overall, Durkheim treated suicide as a social fact , explaining variations in its rate on a macro level, considering society-scale phenomena such as lack of connections between people group attachment and lack of regulations of behavior, rather than individuals' feelings and motivations. Durkheim believed there was more to suicide than extremely personal individual life circumstances: for example, a loss of a job, divorce, or bankruptcy.
Instead, he took suicide and explained it as a social fact instead of a result of one's circumstances. Durkheim believed that suicide was an instance of social deviance. Social deviance being any transgression of socially established norms. He created a normative theory of suicide focusing on the conditions of group life.
Proposing four different types of suicide, which include egoistic , altruistic , anomic , and fatalistic , Durkheim began his theory by plotting social regulation on the x-axis of his chart, and social integration on the y-axis:. This study has been extensively discussed by later scholars and several major criticisms have emerged.
First, Durkheim took most of his data from earlier researchers, notably Adolph Wagner and Henry Morselli ,  who were much more careful in generalizing from their own data. Second, later researchers found that the Protestant—Catholic differences in suicide seemed to be limited to German-speaking Europe and thus may have always been the spurious reflection of other factors. Despite its limitations, Durkheim's work on suicide has influenced proponents of control theory , and is often mentioned as a classic sociological study.
The book pioneered modern social research and served to distinguish social science from psychology and political philosophy. In The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life , Durkheim's first purpose was to identify the social origin and function of religion as he felt that religion was a source of camaraderie and solidarity.
However, contemporary sociology is somewhat more consistent in its use of the term. Typically, contemporary sociologists use the term to refer to complex social forms that reproduce themselves such as governments, the family, human languages, universities, hospitals, business corporations, and legal systems. In this entry the above-noted contemporary sociological usage will be followed. Doing so has the virtue of grounding philosophical theory in the most salient empirical discipline, namely, sociology. In the not so recent past it might have been asked why a theory of social institutions has, or ought to have, any philosophical interest; why not simply leave theories of institutions to the theoretical sociologists? However, in recent years philosophers have addressed a variety of ontological, explanatory, normative and other theoretical issues concerning social institutions Searle , and ; Tuomela ; Miller ; Epstein ; Guala ; Ludwig
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Research on government institutions is one of the most exciting intellectual areas in political science and policy studies today. Increasingly it is recognized by scholars in these fields that effective and legitimate policies depend on the design and maintenance of complex institutional arrangements. This book brings together some of the leading scholars in institutional research in The Netherlands. Their work addresses such perennially difficult questions in institutional research such as: How do we understand institutional change?
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. The book defines and critically discusses the following five principles: the harm principle, legal paternalism, the offense principle, legal moralism and the dignity principle of criminalization. The book argues that all five principles raise important problems that point to rejections or at least a rethink of standard principles of criminalization. The book shows that one of the reasons why we should reject or revise standard principles of criminalization is that even the most plausible versions of the harm principle and legal paternalism that have been offered so far are rendered redundant by general moral theories. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the other three principles or versions thereof , the offense principle, legal moralism and the dignity principle of criminalization, can either be covered by the harm principle, thus making these principles also redundant, or be seen to have what look like other unacceptable implications e.
In the social sciences , social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of individuals. Examples of social structure include family , religion , law , economy , and class. It contrasts with " social system ", which refers to the parent structure in which these various structures are embedded.
The freedom to read is essential to our democracy. It is continuously under attack. Private groups and public authorities in various parts of the country are working to remove or limit access to reading materials, to censor content in schools, to label "controversial" views, to distribute lists of "objectionable" books or authors, and to purge libraries.
У нее оставалось целых пять часов до рейса, и она сказала, что попытается отмыть руку. - Меган? - позвал он и постучал. Никто не ответил, и Беккер толкнул дверь. - Здесь есть кто-нибудь? - Он вошел. Похоже, никого. Пожав плечами, он подошел к раковине.
От него зависела жизнь Сьюзан, а также будущее Цифровой крепости. Стратмор также понимал, что первым делом нужно разрядить ситуацию. Выдержав паузу, он как бы нехотя вздохнул: - Хорошо, Грег. Ты выиграл. Чего ты от меня хочешь.
Коммандер спускался по лестнице, ни на мгновение не сводя с него глаз. Он быстро подошел к ним и остановился в нескольких сантиметрах от дрожащего Чатрукьяна. - Вы что-то сказали. - Сэр, - задыхаясь проговорил Чатрукьян. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ вышел из строя. - Коммандер, - вмешалась Сьюзан, - я хотела бы поговорить… Стратмор жестом заставил ее замолчать.
Все, что относится к его переписке с Танкадо, где упоминается Цифровая крепость. - Хорошо, - сказала Сьюзан, стараясь сосредоточиться, - я сотру весь накопитель Хейла. И все переформатирую. - Нет! - жестко парировал Стратмор. - Не делай. Скорее всего Хейл держит там копию ключа. Она мне нужна.
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