File Name: turkey and arab spring .zip
The debates particularly focus on the political and strategic preferences that Turkey has been embracing during and after the Arab Spring, which dramatically altered the geopolitical complexities of the regional and international politics. Despite its completely new promise given to the wider region in terms of the democratic consolidation of the old regimes and the strategic restoration of the traditional power politics in the Middle East and North Africa, it is true that the Arab Spring brought about a critical challenge for Turkey. In the new political environment of the post-Arab spring, the real challenge for Turkey will be the question of whether Ankara can deliver the daunting task of reinstituting peaceful order in the region. Therefore, one question is of particular importance in order to understand how Turkey will respond to the challenges that have arisen recently: has Turkey reached the limits of its power capabilities in the Middle East? Three Challenges for TFP. TFP during the AK Party government can be analyzed in three different periods; the periods have been mainly shaped by three regional and international challenges in the last decade.
Year , Volume 16 , Issue 3, Pages 93 - Zotero Mendeley EndNote. Abstract It is sometimes argued that Turkish foreign policy under the AK Party government reflects its ideology, and Turkish foreign policy towards the Middle East is often used as an illustration of this influence. When it is closely examined, however, one can easily see that the government has often followed a mainly realist foreign policy approach in the Middle East and used the idealism for the maximization of Turkish national interests. In contrast to the power resources at the disposal of other regional powers, including the support of external powers, sectarian identities, or ethnic-linguistic ties, the key asset of Turkish foreign policy is its successful combination of democracy and Islam. Utilizing this image, Turkey has emerged as the most outspoken supporter of democratic transformations, aiming to create a liberaldemocratic regional order.
The wave began when protests in Tunisia and Egypt toppled their regimes in quick succession, inspiring similar attempts in other Arab countries. The first demonstrations took place in central Tunisia in December , catalyzed by the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi , a year-old street vendor protesting his treatment by local officials. The Tunisian government attempted to end the unrest by using violence against street demonstrations and by offering political and economic concessions. Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali to step down and flee the country on January 14, In October , Tunisians participated in a free election to choose members of a council tasked with drafting a new constitution. A democratically chosen president and prime minister took office in December , and a new constitution was promulgated in January In October—November , Tunisia became the first country of the Arab Spring protests to undergo a peaceful transfer of power from one democratically elected government to another.
It has been almost five years now since a new collective consciousness of Arab masses transformed the political landscape of the Middle East and North Africa. In just a short period of time, the people of the Arab world protested against their rulers, putting an end to long-time authoritarian leaders in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, while bringing others to the eve of collapse. Although the uprisings were initially successful, the people's strong will to see honour, dignity, rights, and good governance realized within their respective countries was fiercely combated by the ruling strata of these states and their strategies to ensure authoritarian survival. The changing political landscape and the dynamic processes of the Arab Spring have caught the attention of academics as well. There is a blossoming literature being written on the Arab Spring focusing on social protests, authoritarian resilience and learning, opposition strategies, the rise of non-state actors, state failure, foreign policy, and new the geopolitical landscape. Therefore, with the desire to contribute to this literature, this edited volume aims to address the changing political atmosphere and the challenges of the emerging geopolitical order, particularly focusing on Turkish foreign policy and its response to the Arab Spring.
In Egypt and Tunisia, Turkey was unambiguously on the side of democracy. As the Arab Spring progressed, realpolitik came to the fore. In Libya, Turkey was.
It began in response to oppressive regimes and a low standard of living , starting with protests in Tunisia. The importance of external factors versus internal factors to the protests' spread and success is contested. In many countries, governments shut down certain sites or blocked Internet service entirely, especially in the times preceding a major rally. The wave of initial revolutions and protests faded by mid, as many Arab Spring demonstrations met with violent responses from authorities,    as well as from pro-government militias, counter-demonstrators, and militaries. These attacks were answered with violence from protesters in some cases.
Turkey redefined its geographical security environment over the last decade by deepening its engagement with neighboring regions, especially with the Middle East. The Arab spring, however, challenged not only the authoritarian regimes in the region but also Turkish foreign policy strategy. This strategy was based on cooperation with the existing regimes and did not prioritize the democracy promotion dimension of the issue. The upheavals in the Arab world, therefore, created a dilemma between ethics and self-interest in Turkish foreign policy. The central argument of the present paper is that Turkey could make a bigger and more constructive impact in the region by trying to take a more detached stand and through controlled activism.
Директор. Директор! - кричал. ГЛАВА 95 Кровь Христа… чаша спасения… Люди сгрудились вокруг бездыханного тела на скамье. Вверху мирно раскачивалась курильница. Халохот, расталкивая людей, двигался по центральному проходу, ища глазами намеченную жертву.
Гигантский компьютер содрогался мелкой дрожью, из густого клубящегося тумана падали капли воды. Сигналы тревоги гремели подобно грому. Коммандер посмотрел на вышедший из строя главный генератор, на котором лежал Фил Чатрукьян. Его обгоревшие останки все еще виднелись на ребрах охлаждения. Вся сцена напоминала некий извращенный вариант представления, посвященного празднику Хэллоуин.
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