File Name: principles of social and political theory .zip
This introductory article explains the theme of this book, which is about political theory. It evaluates the impact of literature that proved especially influential in framing debate through the last decades of the twentieth century and opening years of the twenty-first and examines the historical work on political thought.
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List of Partners vendors. Social justice is a political and philosophical theory which asserts that there are dimensions to the concept of justice beyond those embodied in the principles of civil or criminal law, economic supply and demand, or traditional moral frameworks. Social justice tends to focus more on just relations between groups within society as opposed to the justice of individual conduct or justice for individuals. Historically and in theory, the idea of social justice is that all people should have equal access to wealth , health, well-being, justice, privileges, and opportunity regardless of their legal, political, economic, or other circumstances.
In modern practice, social justice revolves around favoring or punishing different groups of the population, regardless of any given individual's choices or actions, based on value judgements regarding historical events, current conditions, and group relations. In economic terms, this often means redistribution of wealth, income, and economic opportunities from groups whom social justice advocates consider to be oppressors to those whom they consider to be the oppressed.
Social justice is often associated with identity politics, socialism , and revolutionary communism. Social justice forms the basis for socialistic economic systems and is also taught in some religious traditions. In general, social justice originated as a broad concept supporting equal rights through various types of initiatives for citizens. Social justice is closely related to conflict theory and redressing perceived wrongs of past or ongoing conflict between groups of people and parts of society.
This often focuses either on favoring the interests of certain groups within a population whom its proponents consider to be oppressed or on undermining the interests of and directly attacking groups which they consider to be in some sense oppressors.
Efforts to promote social justice usually target various demographics, either to further their interests in order to counteract perceived oppression or to punish them for perceived past offenses. Broadly, demographic characteristics often the target of social justice attention include: race, ethnicity, and nationality; gender and sexual orientation; age; religious affiliation; and disability.
Different types of social justice initiatives may exist to promote equality or redistribute power and status between groups in the areas of wealth, health, well-being, justice, privileges, and economic status. In economic terms, social justice most often amounts to efforts to redistribute wealth, income, or economic opportunities from privileged groups toward underprivileged ones.
Proponents of social justice can seek to achieve their goals through a wide range of peaceful or non-peaceful means, including various government programs, social campaigns, public activism, violent revolution, or even terrorism.
At the government level, social justice initiatives can be pursued through various different types of programs. These can include direct redistribution of wealth and income; protected legal status in employment, government subsidies, and other areas for underprivileged groups; or legalized discrimination against privileged groups up to and including expropriation, collective punishment, and purges.
Socialist and communist systems are more heavily focused on countrywide social justice programs. However, social justice also has its place in capitalistic societies, such as the U.
In these types of societies, social justice concerns are commonly also pursued through activism aimed at changing public policy or directly influencing people's behavior through public rallies and demonstrations, public relations campaigns, targeted investments , and charitable donation and relief efforts.
Politically within the U. Progressives and socialists who do not associate with the Democratic party independents, Greens, and others also commonly employ the term. Examples of social justice can be found throughout all types of societies, government policies, and movements. In socialist economies, social justice forms a foundational principle of economic policy.
Socialist governments commonly carry out vast programs of forced redistribution of land, capital, and other assets, such as the Great Leap Forward and the Holodomor , in the name of social justice. In capitalistic societies, governments regularly intervene in the economy in support of social justice. Social justice advocates often push for policy reform in areas such as healthcare, immigration, or the criminal justice system to remedy potential biases toward certain demographic groups.
Historically in the U. Martin Luther King Jr. The efforts resulted in radical changes to the U. The labor market , labor policy, and organized labor are usually some of the biggest areas of concern in the private sector. Within the labor market, equal pay and opportunities for all demographics are usually two top points for progressive advocacy. The establishment and spread of labor unions is often justified and framed in terms of social justice in order to further the interests of workers against exploitative employers.
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Theories Explaining Inequality. Models to Reduce Inequalilty. Economy Economics. What Is Social Justice? Key Takeaways Social justice is a political philosophical concept originally centered around equality among people along various social dimensions. In economic terms, social justice efforts usually seek to elevate or degrade the economic status of various groups defined by group identity or demographic characteristics like race, gender, and religion.
In practice, social justice can be pursued through various peaceful or non-peaceful forms of activism or government policy.
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You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in our editorial policy. Compare Accounts. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. Related Terms Conflict Theory Definition The conflict theory states that society is in a constant state of conflict due to competition for limited resources.
Marxism Marxism is the set of social, political, and economic theories created and espoused by Karl Marx that became a prominent school of socialist thought. What Is Tax Fairness? Tax fairness is a concept which states that a government's system of taxation must be equitable to all of its citizens. Welfare Economics Welfare economics focuses on finding the optimal allocation of economic resources, goods, and income to best improve the overall good of society.
How Social Economics Influences Your Future Social economics is a branch of economics that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and economics. Partner Links. Related Articles. Economics The Racial Wealth Gap. Investopedia is part of the Dotdash publishing family.
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Today, the concept of social justice often refers to human rights, centered around improving the lives of groups historically marginalized based on race, ethnicity, nationality, gender, sexual orientation, age, religion and disability. Typically, those who strive for social justice seek the redistribution of power to enhance the well-being of individuals through equal access to healthcare, justice and economic opportunity. While activists have been part of the push toward social justice, the proactive changes required often fall to public administrators—in government, non-profit organizations, foundations, public health and regulatory agencies—who are responsible for shaping policies and proposals. The work of public administrators is often quieter and less dramatic than that of the activists pushing for reform or politicians making promises to constituents. Progress toward social justice requires carefully crafted public policies.
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Comprehensively written, this book presents the political theories, concepts, analysis, thoughts and main currents. It progresses to discuss contemporary political analysis in light of American concepts and main currents of Political Thought in detail. This book would be extremely useful for the students pursuing BA Political Science. Login Invalid login details. Register For New Account.
Political philosophy , branch of philosophy that is concerned, at the most abstract level, with the concepts and arguments involved in political opinion. The meaning of the term political is itself one of the major problems of political philosophy. Broadly, however, one may characterize as political all those practices and institutions that are concerned with government. The central problem of political philosophy is how to deploy or limit public power so as to maintain the survival and enhance the quality of human life. Like all aspects of human experience, political philosophy is conditioned by environment and by the scope and limitations of mind , and the answers given by successive political philosophers to perennial problems reflect the knowledge and the assumptions of their times.
A Theory of Justice is a work of political philosophy and ethics by the philosopher John Rawls , in which the author attempts to provide a moral theory alternative to utilitarianism and that addresses the problem of distributive justice the socially just distribution of goods in a society. The theory uses an updated form of Kantian philosophy and a variant form of conventional social contract theory.
Так что вы хотите сказать? - спросил. - Джабба хотел сказать, что это, возможно, не шифр-убийца. - Конечно же, это убийца! - закричал Бринкерхофф. - Что еще это может. Иначе Танкадо не отдал бы ключ. Какой идиот станет делать на кольце надпись из произвольных букв.
- Вы вместе с Танкадо взяли АНБ в заложники, после чего ты и его обвел вокруг пальца. Скажи, Танкадо действительно умер от сердечного приступа или же его ликвидировал кто-то из ваших людей. - Ты совсем ослепла. Как ты не понимаешь, что я ко всему этому непричастен. Развяжи. Развяжи, пока не явились агенты безопасности. - Они не придут, - сказала она безучастно.
Жертва ощутила прикосновение смерти, и началась совершенно иная игра. Беккер мчался, не видя ничего вокруг, постоянно сворачивал, избегая прямых участков. Шаги неумолимо приближались.
На ней стояли пустая бутылка из-под шампанского, два бокала… и лежала записка. Протерев глаза, она натянула на плечи одеяло и прочла: Моя драгоценная Сьюзан. Я люблю. Без воска, Дэвид. Она просияла и прижала записку к груди.
Его сердце переполняла благодарность. Он дышал.
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